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Muscle and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women: Role of Protein and Vitamin D Supplementation Combined with Exercise Training

1
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61029 (PU) Urbino, Italy
2
Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM), University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61029 (PU) Urbino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These Authors contributed equally to this review.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081103
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
Menopause is an age-dependent physiological condition associated with a natural decline in oestrogen levels, which causes a progressive decrease of muscle mass and strength and bone density. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis often coexist in elderly people, with a prevalence of the latter in elderly women. The profound interaction between muscle and bone induces a negative resonance between the two tissues affected by these disorders worsening the quality of life in the postmenopausal period. It has been estimated that at least 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, often requiring hospitalisation and long-term care, causing a large financial burden to health insurance systems. Hormonal replacement therapy is effective in osteoporosis prevention, but concerns have been raised with regard to its safety. On the whole, the increase in life expectancy for postmenopausal women along with the need to improve their quality of life makes it necessary to develop specific and safe therapeutic strategies, alternative to hormonal replacement therapy, targeting both sarcopenia and osteoporosis progression. This review will examine the rationale and the effects of dietary protein, vitamin D and calcium supplementation combined with a specifically-designed exercise training prescription as a strategy to counteract these postmenopausal-associated disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: postmenopausal women; sarcopenia; osteoporosis; exercise; dietary protein; vitamin D postmenopausal women; sarcopenia; osteoporosis; exercise; dietary protein; vitamin D
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Agostini, D.; Donati Zeppa, S.; Lucertini, F.; Annibalini, G.; Gervasi, M.; Ferri Marini, C.; Piccoli, G.; Stocchi, V.; Barbieri, E.; Sestili, P. Muscle and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women: Role of Protein and Vitamin D Supplementation Combined with Exercise Training. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1103.

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