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The Vitamin K Metabolome in Chronic Kidney Disease

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3V6, Canada
Department of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3V6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1076;
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
PDF [213 KB, uploaded 12 August 2018]


The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the vitamin K metabolome. Vitamin K-dependent proteins contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention via the prevention of ectopic mineralization. Sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency is common in CKD patients, and evidence suggests that it may contribute to the CVD burden in this population. Research from animal models suggests that CKD alters tissue measures of the two predominant forms of vitamin K: KI and MK-4. The expression and/or activity of enzymes that regulate the recycling of vitamin K and the carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins also appear to be altered in CKD. Evidence suggests that statins, a common pharmaceutical prescribed to CKD patients to prevent cardiovascular events, may impact the metabolism of vitamin K and therefore contribute to its relative inefficiency at preventing CVD in this population as kidney disease progresses. Human research on the tissue vitamin K metabolome in CKD patients is lacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; chronic kidney disease; phylloquinone; menaquinone-4; vitamin K dependent proteins vitamin K; chronic kidney disease; phylloquinone; menaquinone-4; vitamin K dependent proteins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Turner, M.E.; Adams, M.A.; Holden, R.M. The Vitamin K Metabolome in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1076.

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