Next Article in Journal
Diet-Related Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension During an 11-Year Follow-Up: The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Potential Role for Osteocalcin in the Development of Atherosclerosis and Blood Vessel Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Overweight and Obese Children with Low Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern
Previous Article in Special Issue
VKORC1L1, An Enzyme Mediating the Effect of Vitamin K in Liver and Extrahepatic Tissues
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081076

The Vitamin K Metabolome in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Department of Biomedical and Molecular Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3V6, Canada
2
Department of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3V6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [213 KB, uploaded 12 August 2018]

Abstract

The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the vitamin K metabolome. Vitamin K-dependent proteins contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention via the prevention of ectopic mineralization. Sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency is common in CKD patients, and evidence suggests that it may contribute to the CVD burden in this population. Research from animal models suggests that CKD alters tissue measures of the two predominant forms of vitamin K: KI and MK-4. The expression and/or activity of enzymes that regulate the recycling of vitamin K and the carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins also appear to be altered in CKD. Evidence suggests that statins, a common pharmaceutical prescribed to CKD patients to prevent cardiovascular events, may impact the metabolism of vitamin K and therefore contribute to its relative inefficiency at preventing CVD in this population as kidney disease progresses. Human research on the tissue vitamin K metabolome in CKD patients is lacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; chronic kidney disease; phylloquinone; menaquinone-4; vitamin K dependent proteins vitamin K; chronic kidney disease; phylloquinone; menaquinone-4; vitamin K dependent proteins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Turner, M.E.; Adams, M.A.; Holden, R.M. The Vitamin K Metabolome in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1076.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top