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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081014

Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Unipolar Depression: A Placebo-Controlled Study and Review of the Importance of Dosing and Magnesium Status in the Therapeutic Response

1
Nowowiejski Hospital, 00-685 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, 00-685 Warsaw, Poland
3
Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-685 Warsaw, Poland
4
Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
5
Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-343 Kraków, Poland
These authors equally contributed to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
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Abstract

Animal studies using tests and models have demonstrated that magnesium exerts an antidepressant effect. The literature contains few studies in humans involving attempts to augment antidepressant therapy with magnesium ions. The purpose of our study was to assess the efficacy and safety of antidepressant treatment, in combination with magnesium ions. A total of 37 participants with recurrent depressive disorder who developed a depressive episode were included in this study. As part of this double-blind study, treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine was accompanied with either magnesium ions (120 mg/day as magnesium aspartate) or placebo. During an 8-week treatment period, each patient was monitored for any clinical abnormalities. Moreover, serum fluoxetine and magnesium levels were measured, and pharmaco-electroencephalography was performed. The fluoxetine + magnesium and fluoxetine + placebo groups showed no significant differences in either Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores or serum magnesium levels at any stage of treatment. Multivariate statistical analysis of the whole investigated group showed that the following parameters increased the odds of effective treatment: lower baseline HDRS scores, female gender, smoking, and treatment augmentation with magnesium. The parameters that increased the odds of remission were lower baseline HDRS scores, shorter history of disease, the presence of antidepressant-induced changes in the pharmaco-EEG profile at 6 h after treatment, and the fact of receiving treatment augmented with magnesium ions. The limitation of this study is a small sample size. View Full-Text
Keywords: unipolar depression; magnesium; pharmaco-electroencephalography; efficacy; remission unipolar depression; magnesium; pharmaco-electroencephalography; efficacy; remission
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Ryszewska-Pokraśniewicz, B.; Mach, A.; Skalski, M.; Januszko, P.; Wawrzyniak, Z.M.; Poleszak, E.; Nowak, G.; Pilc, A.; Radziwoń-Zaleska, M. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Unipolar Depression: A Placebo-Controlled Study and Review of the Importance of Dosing and Magnesium Status in the Therapeutic Response. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1014.

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