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Attenuating Pregnancy Weight Gain—What Works and Why: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics and Food, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia
2
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3004, Australia
3
Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
4
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070944
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
Excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) contributes to generational obesity. Our aim was to explore efficacy and intervention characteristics (trimester, duration, frequency, intensity, and delivery method) of interventions to prevent excessive GWG. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched up to May 2018 (no date or language restrictions). Keywords and MeSH terms for diet, GWG, intervention, lifestyle, maternal, physical activity, and pregnancy were used to locate randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias was applied. Eighty-nine RCTs were included. Meta-analysis (60 trials) estimated that women in diet only (WMD: −3.27; 95% CI: −4.96, −1.58, p < 0.01), physical activity (PA) (WMD: −1.02; 95% CI: −1.56, −0.49, p < 0.01), and lifestyle interventions (combining diet and PA) (WMD: −0.84; 95% CI: −1.29, −0.39, p < 0.01) gained significantly less weight than controls. The three eHealth interventions favored neither intervention nor control (WMD: −1.06; 95% CI: −4.13, 2.00, p = 0.50). Meta-regression demonstrated no optimal duration, frequency, intensity, setting, or diet type. Traditional face to face delivery of weight management interventions during pregnancy can be successful. Delivery via eHealth has potential to extend its reach to younger women but needs further evaluation of its success. View Full-Text
Keywords: interventions; gestational weight gain; pregnancy; maternal; lifestyle; physical activity; diet interventions; gestational weight gain; pregnancy; maternal; lifestyle; physical activity; diet
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Walker, R.; Bennett, C.; Blumfield, M.; Gwini, S.; Ma, J.; Wang, F.; Wan, Y.; Truby, H. Attenuating Pregnancy Weight Gain—What Works and Why: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 944.

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