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Open AccessArticle

Contemporary Dietary Intake: Too Much Sodium, Not Enough Potassium, yet Sufficient Iodine: The SALMEX Cohort Results

Nephrology and Mineral Metabolism Department, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
Nutrition Division, Bureau for Global Health, US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20004-4810, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 816;
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Nutraceutical Supplements and Hypertension)
Initiatives to reduce sodium intake are encouraged globally, yet there is concern about compromised iodine intake supplied through salt. The aim of the present study was to determine baseline sodium, potassium, and iodine intake in a sample of workers from our Institution in Mexico City (SALMEX Cohort). Methods. From a cohort of 1009 workers, appropriate 24-h urine and three-day dietary recall was collected in a sample of 727 adult subjects for assessment of urinary sodium, potassium, and iodine concentrations. Median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was compared across categories of sodium intake of <2, 2–3.6, and ≥3.6 g/day. Results. Average sodium intake was 3.49 ± 1.38 g/day; higher in men than women (4.14 vs. 3.11 g/day, p ≤0.001). Only 10.6% of the population had sodium intake within the recommended range (<2 g/day); 45.4% had high (2–3.6 g/day) and 44% had excessive intake (>3.6 g/day). Average urinary Na/K ratio was 3.15 ± 1.22 (ideal < 1), higher in men (3.42 vs. 3.0, p ≤ 0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that sodium intake was associated with age (p = 0.03), male sex (p < 0.001), caloric intake (p = 0.002), UKE (p < 0.001) and BMI (p < 0.001). Median iodine intake was 286.7 µg/day (IQR 215–370 µg/day). Less than 2% of subjects had iodine intake lower than recommended for adults (95 µg/day); 1.3% of subjects in the recommended range of salt intake had low iodine intake. There is a direct relationship between iodine and sodium urinary excretion (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. In the studied population, there was an excessive sodium intake and an imbalance between sodium and potassium intake. Only 10.6% of the population had sodium intake within the recommended values, but iodine intake in this group appears to be adequate. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt intake; sodium-potassium ratio; iodine intake salt intake; sodium-potassium ratio; iodine intake
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Vega-Vega, O.; Fonseca-Correa, J.I.; Mendoza-De la Garza, A.; Rincón-Pedrero, R.; Espinosa-Cuevas, A.; Baeza-Arias, Y.; Dary, O.; Herrero-Bervera, B.; Nieves-Anaya, I.; Correa-Rotter, R. Contemporary Dietary Intake: Too Much Sodium, Not Enough Potassium, yet Sufficient Iodine: The SALMEX Cohort Results. Nutrients 2018, 10, 816.

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