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Open AccessArticle

Combining Short-Term Interval Training with Caloric Restriction Improves ß-Cell Function in Obese Adults

1
Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
2
Center for Diabetes Technology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
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Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
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Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
5
Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060717
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
Although low-calorie diets (LCD) improve glucose regulation, it is unclear if interval exercise (INT) is additive. We examined the impact of an LCD versus LCD + INT training on ß-cell function in relation to glucose tolerance in obese adults. Twenty-six adults (Age: 46 ± 12 year; BMI 38 ± 6 kg/m2) were randomized to 2-week of LCD (~1200 kcal/day) or energy-matched LCD + INT (60 min/day alternating 3 min at 90 and 50% HRpeak). A 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Insulin secretion rates (ISR) were determined by deconvolution modeling to assess glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ([GSIS: ISR/glucose total area under the curve (tAUC)]) and ß-cell function (Disposition Index [DI: GSIS/IR]) relative to skeletal muscle (Matsuda Index), hepatic (HOMA-IR) and adipose (Adipose-IRfasting) insulin resistance (IR). LCD + INT, but not LCD alone, reduced glucose and total-phase ISR tAUC (Interactions: p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively). Both interventions improved skeletal muscle IR by 16% (p = 0.04) and skeletal muscle and hepatic DI (Time: p < 0.05). Improved skeletal muscle DI was associated with lower glucose tAUC (r = −0.57, p < 0.01). Thus, LCD + INT improved glucose tolerance more than LCD in obese adults, and these findings relate to ß-cell function. These data support LCD + INT for preserving pancreatic function for type 2 diabetes prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: caloric restriction; diabetes; obesity; exercise; glucose control caloric restriction; diabetes; obesity; exercise; glucose control
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Francois, M.E.; Gilbertson, N.M.; Eichner, N.Z.M.; Heiston, E.M.; Fabris, C.; Breton, M.; Mehaffey, J.H.; Hassinger, T.; Hallowell, P.T.; Malin, S.K. Combining Short-Term Interval Training with Caloric Restriction Improves ß-Cell Function in Obese Adults. Nutrients 2018, 10, 717.

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