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Omega 3 Consumption and Anxiety Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

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Postgraduate student, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo SP 05508-000, Brazil
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Department of Nutrition, School of Public health, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo SP 01246-904, Brazil
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Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University Hospital, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo SP 05508-000, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS 90035-003, Brazil
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Department of Epidemiology and Quantitative Methods in Health, National School of Public Health Sérgio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro RJ 90035-003, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Public Health; General Hospital, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte MG 30130-100, Brazil
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Departament of Nutrition, Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória ES 29043-900, Brazil
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Laboratory of Neurosciences (LIM-27), Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo SP 05403-010, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060663
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
Few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mental disorders, and it has been established that ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids may have a beneficial effect for sufferers of anxiety disorders. This study is part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)—a population-based cohort study on diet and mental health—and searched for associations between anxiety disorders and consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The study had a cross-sectional design, with a total sample of 12,268 adults. Dietary exposure was measured by a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mental diagnoses were assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule—Revised Version and diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Logistic regression models were built using quintiles of n-3, ω 6 (n-6), n-6/n-3 ratio, and PUFA, using the 1st quintile as reference. Anxiety disorders were identified in 15.4% of the sample. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors, diet variables, and depression, intakes in the 5th quintile were inversely associated with anxiety disorders for EPA (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69–0.98), DHA (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69–0.98), and DPA (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69–0.98). Participants in the fifth quintile of n-6/n-3 ratio had a positive association with anxiety disorders. Although results suggest a possible protective effect of n-3 fatty acids against anxiety, all associations lost significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety disorders; mental disorders; polyunsaturated fatty acids; ω-3 fatty acids; nutrition intake anxiety disorders; mental disorders; polyunsaturated fatty acids; ω-3 fatty acids; nutrition intake
MDPI and ACS Style

Natacci, L.; M. Marchioni, D.; C. Goulart, A.; Nunes, M.A.; B. Moreno, A.; O. Cardoso, L.; Giatti, L.; B. Molina, M.D.C.; S. Santos, I.; R. Brunoni, A.; A. Lotufo, P.; M. Bensenor, I. Omega 3 Consumption and Anxiety Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Nutrients 2018, 10, 663.

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