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Ethanol Extract of Evodia rutaecarpa Attenuates Cell Growth through Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-1 Cells

1
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University, 1 Hanuidae-ro, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 38610, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040523
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract

The dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham have been used widely as a herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and abdominal pain. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant disease characterized by overgrowth of prostates. Despite the pharmacological efficacy of the fruits of E. rutaecarpa against various diseases, their effects against BPH have not been reported. Here, we investigated the inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa (EEER) against BPH, and its underlying mechanisms regarding cell growth of BPH using BPH-1 cells. An in vitro 5α-reductase activity assay showed that EEER exhibited inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase. In BPH-1 cells, EEER treatment inhibited cell viability and reduced the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and phosphor-ERK1/2 proteins. Moreover, EEER also induced apoptosis, with chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Regarding its underlying mechanisms, EEER exacerbated the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner and eventually caused the cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these data demonstrated that EEER had a potent 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and that EEER treatment in BPH-1 cells inhibited cell viability via caspase-8- and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, EEER may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of BPH. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5α-reductase activity; apoptosis; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; cell growth; Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham 5α-reductase activity; apoptosis; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; cell growth; Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham
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Park, E.; Lee, M.-Y.; Seo, C.-S.; Jang, J.-H.; Kim, Y.-U.; Shin, H.-K. Ethanol Extract of Evodia rutaecarpa Attenuates Cell Growth through Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-1 Cells. Nutrients 2018, 10, 523.

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