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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Sodium and Other Nutrient Intakes among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in New Zealand

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Department of Renal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
Department of Renal Medicine, Counties Manukau District Health Board, Auckland 2025, New Zealand
Baxter Healthcare (Asia) Pte Ltd., Singapore 189720, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 502;
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
This study describes baseline intakes of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of hemodialysis patients in New Zealand participating in the SoLID Trial between May/2013 to May/2016. Baseline 3-day weighed food record collections were analyzed using Foodworks 8 Professional food composition database, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Intakes of dietary sodium and other nutrients were compared with relevant guidelines and clinical recommendations. Eighty-five participants completed a 3-day weighed food record. The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at and more than half of the participants exceeded recommended intake levels. Sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake. Only 5% of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2 g/kg of protein per day; 68% of participants were consuming inadequate fiber at baseline. A high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data show excess sodium intake. It is also evident that there was poor adherence to dietary guidelines for a range of other nutrients. A total diet approach is needed to lower sodium intake and improve total diet quality among hemodialysis patients in New Zealand. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal dialysis; sodium dietary; diet; energy intake; New Zealand renal dialysis; sodium dietary; diet; energy intake; New Zealand
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Xie, Z.; McLean, R.; Marshall, M. Dietary Sodium and Other Nutrient Intakes among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in New Zealand. Nutrients 2018, 10, 502.

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