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Open AccessArticle

Association between Maternal and Foetal Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profiles and Birth Weight

1
Research Unit for Multifactorial Diseases and Complex Phenotypes, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), viale di San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Clinical Epidemiology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), P.zza S. Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Misericordia Hospital Grosseto, Usl Toscana Sud-est, 58036 Grosseto, Italy
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Unit of Human Microbiome, Genetic and Rare Diseases Area, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), viale di San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca Industriale Agroalimentare, Università degli Studi di Bologna Cesena, 47521 Cesena, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-alimentari, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040402
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
Regular foetal development is crucial for assuring good health status in the offspring. The quality and quantity of maternal dietary fatty acids (FAs) can affect growth. The study aimed to: (1) investigate the association of maternal/foetal lipid profiles with birth weight (BW); and (2) compare these profiles in small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA) infants. FAs were measured in erythrocyte membranes using gas chromatography analysis in 607 mother–infant pairs (316 males, 52.1%). In the quantile regression, a significant association between BW and levels of maternal linoleic acid (LA; C18:2, n-6; coefficient: 18.66; p = 0.010), arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6; coefficient: 11.35; p = 0.007), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3; coefficient: 29.73; p = 0.007), polyunsaturated FAs (coefficient: 8.55; p = 0.001), foetal DHA (coefficient: −22.82; p = 0.037), and saturated FAs (coefficient: −65.41; p = 0.002) was found. Myristic (C14:0) and pentadecanoic acids (C15:0), both maternal (p = 0.000; p = 0.017) and foetal (p = 0.009; p = 0.002), and maternal erucic acid (C22:1, n-9; p = 0.026) were found at higher levels in SGA infants as compared to AGA ones. Conversely, maternal LA, AA, and omega 6 FAs levels were higher in AGA infants (p = 0.037; p = 0.003; p = 0.026, respectively). Maternal and foetal polyunsaturated and omega 6 FAs levels are positively related to BW, while a lipid profile rich in saturated FAs and erucic acid may influence the risk of SGA. View Full-Text
Keywords: birth weight; small for gestational age; fatty acids; saturated fatty acids birth weight; small for gestational age; fatty acids; saturated fatty acids
MDPI and ACS Style

Cinelli, G.; Fabrizi, M.; Ravà, L.; Signore, F.; Vernocchi, P.; Semeraro, M.; Vallone, C.; Lanciotti, R.; Ciofi degli Atti, M.; Manco, M. Association between Maternal and Foetal Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profiles and Birth Weight. Nutrients 2018, 10, 402.

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