Next Article in Journal
Secular Trends in Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Distribution among Adult Females (1991–2015): Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Chinese Healthy Eating Index

Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 114;
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC)-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)-2011, including 3-day–24-h dietary recalls were used in this study. The CHEI was assessed by four exemplary menus developed by the DGC-2016, the general linear models, the independent t-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Spearman’s correlation analysis, the principal components analysis (PCA), the Cronbach’s coefficient, and the Pearson correlation with nutrient intakes. A higher CHEI score was linked with lower exposure to known risk factors of Chinese diets. The CHEI scored nearly perfect for exemplary menus for adult men (99.8), adult women (99.7), and the healthy elderly (99.1), but not for young children (91.2). The CHEI was able to distinguish the difference in diet quality between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.0001), people with higher and lower education levels (P < 0.0001), and people living in urban and rural areas (P < 0.0001). Low correlations with energy intake for the CHEI total and component scores (|r| < 0.34, P < 0.01) supported the index assessed diet quality independently of diet quantity. The PCA indicated that underlying multiple dimensions compose the CHEI, and Cronbach’s coefficient α was 0.22. Components of dairy, fruits and cooking oils had the greatest impact on the total score. People with a higher CHEI score had not only a higher absolute intake of nutrients (P < 0.001), but also a more nutrient-dense diet (P < 0.001). Our findings support the validity and reliability of the CHEI when using the 3-day–24-h recalls. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy eating index; validity; reliability; diet quality; China healthy eating index; validity; reliability; diet quality; China
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yuan, Y.-Q.; Li, F.; Wu, H.; Wang, Y.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; He, G.-S.; Li, S.-G.; Chen, B. Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Chinese Healthy Eating Index. Nutrients 2018, 10, 114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop