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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121932

Lisosan G Protects the Retina from Neurovascular Damage in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy

1
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, via San Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Center Nutrafood “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health”, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
National Research Council, Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA), Pisa Unit, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract

Lisosan G (LG), a fermented powder obtained from whole grains, is a recognized antioxidant compound that improves the bioactivity and survival of different cell types. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LG ameliorates both the neural and the vascular damage characterizing early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The effects of LG were studied in cultured explants of mouse retinas challenged with oxidative stress (OS) or in retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Apoptosis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, OS markers, blood-retinal barrier (BRB) integrity, and inflammation were assessed, while retinal function was evaluated with electroretinogram (ERG). LG extensively inhibited apoptosis, VEGF expression, and OS both in retinal explants and in STZ rats. In addition, STZ rats treated with LG displayed an almost total BRB integrity, reduced levels of inflammatory markers and a partially restored visual function as evaluated with ERG. In summary, we demonstrated that LG exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that exert powerful protective actions against neural and vascular defects characteristic of DR. Therefore, LG-containing foods or supplements may be considered to implement DR treatments.
Keywords: neuroprotection; nutraceuticals; oxidative stress; retinal explant; streptozotocin; VEGF neuroprotection; nutraceuticals; oxidative stress; retinal explant; streptozotocin; VEGF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Amato, R.; Rossino, M.G.; Cammalleri, M.; Locri, F.; Pucci, L.; Monte, M.D.; Casini, G. Lisosan G Protects the Retina from Neurovascular Damage in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1932.

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