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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121916

Effects of Protein Supplementation Combined with Exercise Intervention on Frailty Indices, Body Composition, and Physical Function in Frail Older Adults

1
School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
3
School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 10675, Taiwan
4
School and Graduate Institute of Nutrition Science, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33371, Taiwan
6
Center for Evidence-Based Health Care, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
7
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
8
Obesity Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
Chun-De Liao and Pi-Hsia Lee equally contributed to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Older Individuals' Nutrition)
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Abstract

Aging poses a high risk of lean mass loss, which can be effectively improved through resistance exercise training (RET), or multicomponent exercise training (MET) as well as nutrition supplementation, such as protein supplementation (PS). This study investigated the effects of PS plus exercise training on frail older individuals. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the efficacy of PS combined with RET or MET in frail older individuals. The included RCTs were analyzed through a meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. We finally included 22 RCTs in the meta-analysis, with a mean (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6.7 (4–9/10). PS plus exercise training significantly improved the frailty status (odds ratio = 2.77; p = 0.006), lean mass (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.52; p < 0.00001), leg strength (SMD = 0.37; p < 0.00001), and walking speed (SMD = 0.32; p = 0.002). Subgroup analyses revealed that PS plus MET exert significant effects on frailty indices, whereas PS plus RET further improves lean mass. Our findings suggest that PS plus RET as well as MET is effective in improving frailty status, lean mass, muscle strength, and physical mobility in frail older individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; protein supplementation; exercise training; lean body mass; physical function frailty; protein supplementation; exercise training; lean body mass; physical function
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Liao, C.-D.; Lee, P.-H.; Hsiao, D.-J.; Huang, S.-W.; Tsauo, J.-Y.; Chen, H.-C.; Liou, T.-H. Effects of Protein Supplementation Combined with Exercise Intervention on Frailty Indices, Body Composition, and Physical Function in Frail Older Adults. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1916.

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