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Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Saiseikai Izuo Hospital, Osaka 551-0032, Japan
2
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan
3
Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, Wakayama 649-6493, Japan
4
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0701, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121821
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
Calorie restriction (CR) can prolong the human lifespan, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition, while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins. Among these, we focus on upstream-type CRMs and propose their classification as compounds with energy metabolism inhibition effects, particularly glucose metabolism modulation effects. The upstream-type CRMs reviewed include chitosan, acarbose, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and hexose analogs such as 2-deoxy-d-glucose, d-glucosamine, and d-allulose, which show antiaging and longevity effects. Finally, we discuss the molecular definition of upstream-type CRMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: calorie restriction mimetics; antiaging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-d-glucose; d-allulose; d-glucosamine calorie restriction mimetics; antiaging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-d-glucose; d-allulose; d-glucosamine
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Shintani, H.; Shintani, T.; Ashida, H.; Sato, M. Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1821.

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