Next Article in Journal
Combining Dietary Sulfur Amino Acid Restriction with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in Humans: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Cod Residual Protein Prevented Blood Pressure Increase in Zucker fa/fa Rats, Possibly by Inhibiting Activities of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Renin
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121821

Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Saiseikai Izuo Hospital, Osaka 551-0032, Japan
2
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan
3
Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, Wakayama 649-6493, Japan
4
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0701, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1383 KB, uploaded 22 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) can prolong the human lifespan, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition, while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins. Among these, we focus on upstream-type CRMs and propose their classification as compounds with energy metabolism inhibition effects, particularly glucose metabolism modulation effects. The upstream-type CRMs reviewed include chitosan, acarbose, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and hexose analogs such as 2-deoxy-d-glucose, d-glucosamine, and d-allulose, which show antiaging and longevity effects. Finally, we discuss the molecular definition of upstream-type CRMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: calorie restriction mimetics; antiaging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-d-glucose; d-allulose; d-glucosamine calorie restriction mimetics; antiaging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-d-glucose; d-allulose; d-glucosamine
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shintani, H.; Shintani, T.; Ashida, H.; Sato, M. Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1821.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top