Gut microbiota have recently been suggested to play a part in low-grade systemic inflammation, which is considered a key risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Diet is known to affect gut microbiota; however, the effects of diet and dietary components on gut microbiota and inflammation are not fully understood. In the present review, we summarize recent research on human dietary intervention studies, investigating the effects of healthy diets or dietary components on gut microbiota and systemic inflammation. We included 18 studies that reported how different dietary components altered gut microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acid levels, and/or inflammatory markers. However, the heterogeneity among the intervention studies makes it difficult to conclude whether diets or dietary components affect gut microbiota homeostasis and inflammation. More appropriately designed studies are needed to better understand the effects of diet on the gut microbiota, systemic inflammation, and risk of cardiometabolic disorders.
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