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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111722 (registering DOI)

Chronic Consumption of Fructose Induces Behavioral Alterations by Increasing Orexin and Dopamine Levels in the Rat Brain

1
Laboratorio Fisiología de la Formación Reticular, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Física Medica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
3
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
4
Departamento de Neuroquímica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
5
Laboratorio de Neuropsicofarmacología, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Ciudad de México 14269, Mexico
6
Laboratorio Nacional de Microscopía Avanzada, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México 06720, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract

It has been widely described that chronic intake of fructose causes metabolic alterations which can be associated with brain function impairment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fructose intake on the sleep–wake cycle, locomotion, and neurochemical parameters in Wistar rats. The experimental group was fed with 10% fructose in drinking water for five weeks. After treatment, metabolic indicators were quantified in blood. Electroencephalographic recordings were used to evaluate the sleep architecture and the spectral power of frequency bands. Likewise, the locomotor activity and the concentrations of orexin A and monoamines were estimated. Our results show that fructose diet significantly increased the blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Fructose modified the sleep–wake cycle of rats, increasing the waking duration and conversely decreasing the non-rapid eye movement sleep. Furthermore, these effects were accompanied by increases of the spectral power at different frequency bands. Chronic consumption of fructose caused a slight increase in the locomotor activity as well as an increase of orexin A and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Specifically, immunoreactivity for orexin A was increased in the ventral tegmental area after the intake of fructose. Our study suggests that fructose induces metabolic changes and stimulates the activity of orexinergic and dopaminergic neurons, which may be responsible for alterations of the sleep–wake cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: fructose; sleep–wake cycle; locomotor activity; dopamine; orexin A; lateral hypothalamic area; ventral tegmental area fructose; sleep–wake cycle; locomotor activity; dopamine; orexin A; lateral hypothalamic area; ventral tegmental area
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Franco-Pérez, J.; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, J.; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; Neri-Santos, A.; Montes, S.; Suarez-Rivera, N.; Hernández-Cerón, M.; Pérez-Koldenkova, V. Chronic Consumption of Fructose Induces Behavioral Alterations by Increasing Orexin and Dopamine Levels in the Rat Brain. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1722.

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