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Article

Longitudinal Association between n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Japan

1
Section of the NILS-LSA, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka-cho, Obu-City, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
2
Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Limited, 8-1-1 Seikadai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0284, Japan
3
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University, 2-9 Katahira, Nagakute-city, Aichi 480-1197, Japan
4
Graduate School of Nutritional Sciences, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, 57 Takenoyama, Iwasaki-cho, Nisshin-city, Aichi 470-0196, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111655
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA and Neurocognitive Function)
It remains unclear whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have a preventive effect on depression in the general population. This study investigated the longitudinal association between n-3 LCPUFA intake and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling Japanese participants. The participants were aged 40–79 years at baseline in the cohort study, wherein examinations, including the assessment of depressive symptoms and nutritional status, were biennially conducted from 1997 to 2012. The subjects (n = 2335) who had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score < 16 at the first examination and who participated in the follow-up study at least once were included in the analysis. The follow-up end point was the first onset (CES-D ≥ 16) or the last examination participation. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for CES-D ≥ 16 were estimated using the adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Overall, 22.1% participants showed depressive symptoms during follow-up (average; 8.1 years). Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest HR for EPA was 0.74 (0.60–0.93), and highest and middle HRs for DHA were 0.79 (0.63–0.98) and 0.80 (0.65–0.99) (P for trend = 0.009 and 0.032), respectively. Among populations with high fish consumption, higher n-3 LCPUFA intake may be associated with a low risk of depressive symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 LCPUFA; depressive symptoms; community-dwelling; cohort; Japanese; NILS-LSA n-3 LCPUFA; depressive symptoms; community-dwelling; cohort; Japanese; NILS-LSA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Horikawa, C.; Otsuka, R.; Kato, Y.; Nishita, Y.; Tange, C.; Rogi, T.; Kawashima, H.; Shibata, H.; Ando, F.; Shimokata, H. Longitudinal Association between n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Japan. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1655. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111655

AMA Style

Horikawa C, Otsuka R, Kato Y, Nishita Y, Tange C, Rogi T, Kawashima H, Shibata H, Ando F, Shimokata H. Longitudinal Association between n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Japan. Nutrients. 2018; 10(11):1655. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111655

Chicago/Turabian Style

Horikawa, Chika, Rei Otsuka, Yuki Kato, Yukiko Nishita, Chikako Tange, Tomohiro Rogi, Hiroshi Kawashima, Hiroshi Shibata, Fujiko Ando, and Hiroshi Shimokata. 2018. "Longitudinal Association between n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Depressive Symptoms: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Japan" Nutrients 10, no. 11: 1655. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111655

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