Micronutrients include vitamins, minerals and, trace elements that are required in minute quantities but play a vital role in normal human growth, development and physiological functioning. Micronutrient deficiencies, also known as hidden hunger, are a global issue, with particularly high prevalence rates in developing countries. Currently, Sri Lanka is experiencing the double burden of over- and undernutrition. This review describes the micronutrient status of Sri Lanka based on results of national surveys and related articles published from 2000. The available data suggest a higher prevalence of iron, zinc, calcium, folate, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence of iodine deficiency has declined gradually following the implementation of a universal salt iodization program. Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and low red blood cell indices. Females are more vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies than males. The coexistence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and concurrent macro- and micronutrient deficiencies is common. Studies have shown an association between micronutrient deficiencies and different demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary factors. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive studies, nutritional policies, and nationwide intervention programs in Sri Lanka to improve the micronutrient status of the population.
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