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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101492

Digestive Responses to Fortified Cow or Goat Dairy Drinks: A Randomised Controlled Trial

1
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
2
Food and Bio-based Products, AgResearch, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
3
Department of Food Technology and Nutritional Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail 1902, Bangladesh
4
Dairy Goat Co-operative (NZ) Ltd., 18 Gallagher Dr, Melville, Hamilton 3206, New Zealand
5
AgResearch Grasslands, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
6
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract

Fortified milk drinks are predominantly manufactured from bovine (cow) sources. Alternative formulations include those prepared with hydrolysed bovine milk proteins or from alternate bovidae species, such as caprine (goat) milk. Currently, there is little data on protein digestive and metabolic responses following ingestion of fortified milk drinks. To examine the digestive and metabolic responses to commercially-available fortified milks, young adults (n = 15 males: 15 females), in a randomised sequence, ingested isonitrogenous quantities of whole cow-protein (WC), whole goat-protein (WG), or partially-hydrolysed whey cow-protein (HC), commercial fortified milks. Plasma amino acid (AA) and hormonal responses were measured at baseline and again at 5 h after ingestion. Paracetamol recovery, breath hydrogen, and subjective digestive responses were also measured. Postprandial plasma AA was similar between WC and WG, while AA appearance was suppressed with HC. Following HC, there was a negative incremental AUC in plasma branched-chain AAs. Further, HC had delayed gastric emptying, increased transit time, and led to exaggerated insulin and GLP-1 responses, in comparison to whole protein formulas. Overall, WC and WG had similar protein and digestive responses with no differences in digestive comfort. Contrastingly, HC led to delayed gastric emptying, attenuated AA appearance, and a heightened circulating insulin response. View Full-Text
Keywords: fortified milk; goat milk; nutrition; adult; protein hydrolysis; digestion; gastrointestinal fortified milk; goat milk; nutrition; adult; protein hydrolysis; digestion; gastrointestinal
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Milan, A.M.; Hodgkinson, A.J.; Mitchell, S.M.; Prodhan, U.K.; Prosser, C.G.; Carpenter, E.A.; Fraser, K.; Cameron-Smith, D. Digestive Responses to Fortified Cow or Goat Dairy Drinks: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1492.

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