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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101442

Dietary Patterns in Primary School are of Prospective Relevance for the Development of Body Composition in Two German Pediatric Populations

1
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Department: Epidemiological Methods and Etiologic Research, Achterstr. 30, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
IEL—Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, DONALD Study, Heinstück 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
3
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts University, 24118 Kiel, Germany
4
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany
5
Institute of Nutrition, Consumption and Health, Faculty of Natural Science, University Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents)
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Abstract

This study performed comparative analyses in two pediatric cohorts to identify dietary patterns during primary school years and examined their relevance to body composition development. Nutritional and anthropometric data at the beginning of primary school and two or four years later were available from 298 and 372 participants of IDEFICS-Germany (Identification and prevention of Dietary-induced and lifestyle-induced health Effects In Children and infants Study) and the KOPS (Kiel Obesity Prevention Study) cohort, respectively. Principal component analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to identify dietary patterns at baseline and patterns of change in food group intake during primary school years. RRR extracted patterns explaining variations in changes in body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and waist-to-height-ratio (WtHR). Associations between pattern adherence and excess gain in BMI, FMI, or WtHR (>75th percentile) during primary school years were examined using logistic regression. Among PCA patterns, only a change towards a more Mediterranean food choice during primary school years were associated with a favorable body composition development in IDEFICS-Germany (p < 0.05). In KOPS, RRR patterns characterized by a frequent consumption of fast foods or starchy carbohydrate foods were consistently associated with an excess gain in BMI and WtHR (all p < 0.005). In IDEFICS-Germany, excess gain in BMI, FMI, and WtHR were predicted by a frequent consumption of nuts, meat, and pizza at baseline and a decrease in the consumption frequency of protein sources and snack carbohydrates during primary school years (all p < 0.01). The study confirms an adverse impact of fast food consumption on body composition during primary school years. Combinations of protein and carbohydrate sources deserve further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; primary school; dietary pattern; principal component analysis; reduced rank regression; prevention body composition; primary school; dietary pattern; principal component analysis; reduced rank regression; prevention
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wolters, M.; Joslowski, G.; Plachta-Danielzik, S.; Standl, M.; Müller, M.J.; Ahrens, W.; Buyken, A.E. Dietary Patterns in Primary School are of Prospective Relevance for the Development of Body Composition in Two German Pediatric Populations. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1442.

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