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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Maternal Nutrition and Body Composition During Breastfeeding: Association with Human Milk Composition

Department of Clinical Dietetics, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, E Ciolka Str. 27, 01-445 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Nowogrodzka Str. 73, 02-018 Warsaw, Poland
Laboratory of Human Milk and Lactation Research at Regional Human Milk Bank in Holy Family Hospital, Faculty of Health Science, Department of Neonatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury Str. 63A, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1379;
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
The composition of human milk is dynamic and can vary according to many maternal factors, such as diet and nutritional status. This study investigated the association of maternal nutrition and body composition with human milk composition. All measurements and analyses were done at three time points: during the first (n = 40), third (n = 22), and sixth (n = 15) month of lactation. Human milk was analyzed using the Miris human milk analyzer (HMA), body composition was measured with bioelectrical bioimpedance (BIA) using a Maltron BioScan 920-II, and the assessment of women’s nutrition was based on a three-day dietary record. The correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r) did not show a significant statistical relationship between human milk composition and nutrients in women’s diet at three time points. For women in the third month postpartum, we observed moderate to strong significant correlations (r ranged from 0.47 to 0.64) between total protein content in milk and the majority of body composition measures as follows: positive correlations: % fat mass (r = 0.60; p = 0.003), fat-free mass expressed in kg (r = 0.63; p = 0.001), and muscle mass (r = 0.47; p = 0.027); and negative correlation: % total body water (r = −0.60; p = 0.003). The variance in milk fat content was related to the body mass index (BMI), with a significant positive correlation in the first month postpartum (r = 0.33; p = 0.048). These findings suggest that it is not diet, but rather the maternal body composition that may be associated with the nutritional value of human milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; human milk composition; body composition; maternal diet breastfeeding; human milk composition; body composition; maternal diet
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Bzikowska-Jura, A.; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, A.; Olędzka, G.; Szostak-Węgierek, D.; Weker, H.; Wesołowska, A. Maternal Nutrition and Body Composition During Breastfeeding: Association with Human Milk Composition. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1379.

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