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Endogenous Omega (n)-3 Fatty Acids in Fat-1 Mice Attenuated Depression-Like Behavior, Imbalance between Microglial M1 and M2 Phenotypes, and Dysfunction of Neurotrophins Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Administration

1
Research Institute for Marine Drug and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
2
Shenzhen Institute of Guangdong Ocean University, Shenzhen 518120, China
3
Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drug, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023, China
4
Guangdong Key laboratory of Laboratory Animal, Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangzhou 510663, China
5
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101351
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Human Health)
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Abstract

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to improve depression. However, PUFA purities, caloric content, and ratios in different diets may affect the results. By using Fat-1 mice which convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs in the brain, this study further evaluated anti-depressant mechanisms of n-3 PUFAs in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model. Adult male Fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed soybean oil diet for 8 weeks. Depression-like behaviors were measured 24 h after saline or LPS central administration. In WT littermates, LPS reduced sucrose intake, but increased immobility in forced-swimming and tail suspension tests. Microglial M1 phenotype CD11b expression and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-17 were elevated, while M2 phenotype-related IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were decreased. LPS also reduced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (Trk B), while increasing glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and pro-BDNF, p75, NO, and iNOS levels. In Fat-1 mice, LPS-induced behavioral changes were attenuated, which were associated with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and reversed changes in p75, NO, iNOS, and BDNF. Gas chromatography assay confirmed increased n-3 PUFA levels and n-3/n-6 ratios in the brains of Fat-1 mice. In conclusion, endogenous n-3 PUFAs may improve LPS-induced depression-like behavior through balancing M1 and M2-phenotypes and normalizing BDNF function. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fat-1 transgenic mice; n-3 fatty acids; microglial M1 and M2 phenotypes; neurotrophins; BDNF; depression Fat-1 transgenic mice; n-3 fatty acids; microglial M1 and M2 phenotypes; neurotrophins; BDNF; depression
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Gu, M.; Li, Y.; Tang, H.; Zhang, C.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Song, C. Endogenous Omega (n)-3 Fatty Acids in Fat-1 Mice Attenuated Depression-Like Behavior, Imbalance between Microglial M1 and M2 Phenotypes, and Dysfunction of Neurotrophins Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Administration. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1351.

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