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The Impact of Adding Sugars to Milk and Fruit on Adiposity and Diet Quality in Children: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study

1
Institute of Food Sciences, CNR, 83100 Avellino, Italy
2
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, 28359 Bremen, Germany
3
Institute of Statistics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
4
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
Department of Biomedicine and Public Health, School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, 54128 Skövde, Sweden
6
Research and Education Institute of Child Health, 2040 Strovolos, Cyprus
7
Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
8
Department of Paediatrics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Hungary
9
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
10
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
11
National Institute for Health Development, 11619 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101350
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract

Sugar, particularly as free sugars or sugar-sweetened beverages, significantly contributes to total energy intake, and, possibly, to increased body weight. Excessive consumption may be considered as a proxy of poor diet quality. However, no previous studies evaluated the association between the habit of adding sugars to “healthy” foods, such as plain milk and fresh fruit, and indicators of adiposity and/or dietary quality in children. To answer to these research questions, we Panalysed the European cohort of children participating in the IDEFICS study. Anthropometric variables, frequency of consumption of sugars added to milk and fruit (SAMF), and scores of adherence to healthy dietary pattern (HDAS) were assessed at baseline in 9829 children stratified according to age and sex. From this cohort, 6929 children were investigated again after two years follow-up. At baseline, a direct association between SAMF categories and adiposity indexes was observed only in children aged 6–<10 years, while the lower frequency of SAMF consumption was significantly associated with a higher HDAS. At the two year follow-up, children with higher baseline SAMF consumption showed significantly higher increases in all the anthropometric variables measured, with the exception of girls 6–<10 years old. The inverse association between SAMF categories and HDAS was still present at the two years follow-up in all age and sex groups. Our results suggest that the habit to adding sugars to foods that are commonly perceived as healthy may impact the adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and increase in adiposity risk as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: added sugars; milk; fruit; children; obesity; cohort study; healthy diet score; dietary pattern added sugars; milk; fruit; children; obesity; cohort study; healthy diet score; dietary pattern
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Dello Russo, M.; Ahrens, W.; De Henauw, S.; Eiben, G.; Hebestreit, A.; Kourides, Y.; Lissner, L.; Molnar, D.; Moreno, L.A.; Pala, V.; Veidebaum, T.; Siani, A.; Russo, P.; On behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium. The Impact of Adding Sugars to Milk and Fruit on Adiposity and Diet Quality in Children: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1350.

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