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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(9), 915;

Diurnal Air Temperature Modeling Based on the Land Surface Temperature

Faculty of Geography, Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417466191, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land-Atmosphere Interactions)
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The air temperature is an essential variable in many applications related to Earth science. Sporadic spatial distribution of weather stations causes a low spatial resolution of measured air temperatures. This study focused on modeling the air diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) based on the land surface temperature (LST) DTC. The air DTC model parameters were estimated from LST DTC model parameters by a regression analysis. Here, the LST obtained from the INSAT-3D geostationary satellite and the air temperature extracted from weather stations were used within the time frame of 4 March 2015 to 22 May 2017 across Iran. Constant parameters of the air DTC model for each weather station were estimated based on an experimental approach over the time period. Results showed these parameters decrease as elevation increases. The mean absolute error (MAE) and the root mean square error (RMSE) for three hours sampling were calculated. The MAE and RMSE ranges were between [0.1, 4] °C and [0.1, 3.3] °C, respectively. Additionally, 95% of MAEs and RMSEs were less than 2.9 °C and 2.4 °C values, correspondingly. The range of the mean values of MAEs and RMSEs for a three-hour sampling time were [−0.29, 0.6] °C and [2, 2.11] °C. The DTC model results showed a meaningful statistical fitting in both air DTCs modeled from LST and weather station-based DTCs. The variability of mean error and RMSE in different land covers and elevation classes were also investigated. In spite of the complex behavior of the environmental variables in the study area, the model error bar did not show significantly biased estimations for various classes. Therefore, the developed model was less sensitive to variations of land covers and elevation changes. It can be conclude that the coefficients of regression between LST and air DTC could model properly the environmental factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: air temperature; LST; DTC model; satellite; weather station air temperature; LST; DTC model; satellite; weather station

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gholamnia, M.; Alavipanah, S.K.; Darvishi Boloorani, A.; Hamzeh, S.; Kiavarz, M. Diurnal Air Temperature Modeling Based on the Land Surface Temperature. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 915.

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