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An Improved Spectrum Model for Sea Surface Radar Backscattering at L-Band

The Key Laboratory for Earth Observation of Hainan Province, Sanya 572029, China
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 776;
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Radar)
PDF [2209 KB, uploaded 29 July 2017]


L-band active microwave remote sensing is one of the most important technical methods of ocean environmental monitoring and dynamic parameter retrieval. Recently, a unique negative upwind-crosswind (NUC) asymmetry of L-band ocean backscatter over a low wind speed range was observed. To study the directional features of L-band ocean surface backscattering, a new directional spectrum model is proposed and built into the advanced integral equation method (AIEM). This spectrum combines Apel’s omnidirectional spectrum and an improved empirical angular spreading function (ASF). The coefficients in the ASF were determined by the fitting of radar observations so that it provides a better description of wave directionality, especially over wavenumber ranges from short-gravity waves to capillary waves. Based on the improved spectrum and the AIEM scattering model, L-band NUC asymmetry at low wind speeds and positive upwind-crosswind (PUC) asymmetry at higher wind speeds are simulated successfully. The model outputs are validated against Aquarius/SAC-D observations under different incidence angles, azimuth angles and wind speed conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea surface; scattering; L-band; radar remote sensing; wave spectra sea surface; scattering; L-band; radar remote sensing; wave spectra

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Du, Y.; Yang, X.; Chen, K.-S.; Ma, W.; Li, Z. An Improved Spectrum Model for Sea Surface Radar Backscattering at L-Band. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 776.

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