Next Article in Journal
Extreme Wave Height Events in NW Spain: A Combined Multi-Sensor and Model Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparative Analysis of Chinese HJ-1 CCD, GF-1 WFV and ZY-3 MUX Sensor Data for Leaf Area Index Estimations for Maize
Previous Article in Journal
Analyzing the Long-Term Phenological Trends of Salt Marsh Ecosystem across Coastal LOUISIANA
Previous Article in Special Issue
MODIS-Based Estimation of Terrestrial Latent Heat Flux over North America Using Three Machine Learning Algorithms
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

High-Resolution Mapping of Freeze/Thaw Status in China via Fusion of MODIS and AMSR2 Data

Environmental Science Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 20 Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
National Satellite Meteorological Center, Beijing 100081, China
School of Environment and Natural Resources, OARDC, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1339;
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
PDF [6727 KB, uploaded 20 December 2017]


Transition of freeze/thaw (F/T) affects land-atmospheric interactions and other biospheric dynamics. Global F/T statuses are normally monitored using microwave remote sensing, but at coarse resolutions (e.g., 25 km). Integration of coarse microwave remote sensing data with finer satellite products represents an opportunity to further enhance our ability to map F/T statuses regionally and globally. Here, we implemented and tested an approach to generate daily F/T status maps at a 5-km spatial resolution through the fusion of passive microwave data from AMSR2 and land surface temperature products from MODIS, using China as our study area for the year 2013 and 2014. Moreover, possible influences from elevation, vegetation, seasonality, etc., were also analyzed, as such analysis provides a direction to improve the approach. Overall, our freeze/thaw maps agreed well with ground reference observations, with an accuracy of ~86.6%. The new F/T maps helped to identify regions subject to frequent F/T transitions through the year, such as the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Xinjiang, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning Province. This study indicates that the combination of AMSR2 and MODIS observations provides an effective method to obtain finer F/T maps (5-km or lower) for extensive regions. The finer F/T maps improve our knowledge of the F/T state detected by satellite remote sensing, and have a wide range of applications in regional studies considering land surface heterogeneity and models (e.g., community land models). View Full-Text
Keywords: high-resolution freeze/thaw; AMSR2; MODIS high-resolution freeze/thaw; AMSR2; MODIS

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, T.; Zhao, T.; Shi, J.; Wu, S.; Liu, D.; Qin, H.; Zhao, K. High-Resolution Mapping of Freeze/Thaw Status in China via Fusion of MODIS and AMSR2 Data. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1339.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top