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Open AccessArticle

Examining the Influence of Seasonality, Condition, and Species Composition on Mangrove Leaf Pigment Contents and Laboratory Based Spectroscopy Data

Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-305, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, Mexico
Department of Geography, Nipissing University, 100 College Drive, North Bay, ON P1B 8L7, Canada
TropWATER. Centre for Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia
Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 5C2, Canada
Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad Mazatlán, Av. Joel Montes Camarena s/n, Mazatlán, Sinaloa 82040, Mexico
Department of Geography and Geology, Algoma University, 1520 Queen Street, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2G4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Deepak R. Mishra, Richard W. Gould, Yoshio Inoue and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(3), 226;
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments)
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seasonal relationships (dry vs. rainy) between reflectance (400–1000 nm) and leaf pigment contents (chlorophyll-a (chl-a), chlorophyll-b (chl-b), total carotenoids (tcar), chlorophyll a/b ratio) in three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans (A. germinans), Laguncularia racemosa (L. racemosa), and Rhizophora mangle (R. mangle)) according to their condition (stressed vs. healthy). Based on a sample of 360 leaves taken from a semi-arid forest of the Mexican Pacific, it was determined that during the dry season, the stressed A. germinans and R. mangle show the highest maximum correlations at the green (550 nm) and red-edge (710 nm) wavelengths (r = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively) for both chl-a and chl-b and that much lower values (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively) were recorded during the rainy season. Moreover, it was found that the tcar correlation pattern across the electromagnetic spectrum was quite different from that of the chl-a, the chl-b, and chl a/b ratio but that their maximum correlations were also located at the same two wavelength ranges for both seasons. The stressed L. racemosa was the only sample to exhibit minimal correlation with chl-a and chl-b for either season. In addition, the healthy A. germinans and R. mangle depicted similar patterns of chl-a and chl-b, but the tcar varied depending on the species. The healthy L. racemosa recorded higher correlations with chl-b and tcar at the green and red-edge wavelengths during the dry season, and higher correlation with chl-a during the rainy season. Finally, the vegetation index Red Edge Inflection Point Index (REIP) was found to be the optimal index for chl-a estimation for both stressed and healthy classes. For chl-b, both the REIP and the Vogelmann Red Edge Index (Vog1) index were found to be best at prediction. Based on the results of this investigation, it is suggested that caution be taken as mangrove leaf pigment contents from spectroscopy data have been shown to be sensitive to seasonality, species, and condition. The authors suggest potential reasons for the observed variability in the reflectance and pigment contents relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: spectroscopy; pigment content; forest health; Mexico spectroscopy; pigment content; forest health; Mexico
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MDPI and ACS Style

Flores-de-Santiago, F.; Kovacs, J.M.; Wang, J.; Flores-Verdugo, F.; Zhang, C.; González-Farías, F. Examining the Influence of Seasonality, Condition, and Species Composition on Mangrove Leaf Pigment Contents and Laboratory Based Spectroscopy Data. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 226.

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