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Open AccessArticle

Observing Land Subsidence and Revealing the Factors That Influence It Using a Multi-Sensor Approach in Yunlin County, Taiwan

1
Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, No. 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
2
LIDAR Technology Co., Ltd., 13F-3, No.32, Gaotie 2nd Rd., Zhubei City, Hsinchu 302, Taiwan
3
Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Informatics, Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology, No.1, Xinxing Rd., Xinfeng, Hsinchu 304, Taiwan
4
Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Richard Gloaguen, Ioannis Gitas, Dale A. Quattrochi and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(6), 8202-8223; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70608202
Received: 12 October 2014 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observations for the Sustainable Development)
Land subsidence is a worldwide problem that is typically caused by human activities, primarily the removal of groundwater. In Western Taiwan, groundwater has been pumped for industrial, residential, agricultural, and aquacultural uses for over 40 years. In this study, a multisensor monitoring system comprising GPS stations, leveling surveys, monitoring wells, and Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) was employed to monitor land subsidence in Western Taiwan. The results indicate that land subsidence in Yunlin County was mainly affected by the compaction of subsurface soils and over-pumping of groundwater from deep soils. The study area comprised western foothills, characterized by sediments containing predominantly gravel, and coastal areas, where clay was predominant. The subsidence in coastal areas was more severe than that in the western foothills, as a result of groundwater removal. An additional factor affecting subsidence was the compaction of deep layers caused by deep groundwater removal and the deep-layer compaction was difficult to recover. Based on multisensor monitoring results, severe subsidence is mainly affected by compaction of subsurface soils, over-pumping of groundwater from deep soils, and deep soil compaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: land subsidence; groundwater; leveling; Global Positioning System (GPS); monitoring well; PS-InSAR land subsidence; groundwater; leveling; Global Positioning System (GPS); monitoring well; PS-InSAR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, W.-C.; Chang, H.-C.; Chang, K.-T.; Lin, E.-K.; Liu, J.-K.; Liou, Y.-A. Observing Land Subsidence and Revealing the Factors That Influence It Using a Multi-Sensor Approach in Yunlin County, Taiwan. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 8202-8223.

AMA Style

Hsu W-C, Chang H-C, Chang K-T, Lin E-K, Liu J-K, Liou Y-A. Observing Land Subsidence and Revealing the Factors That Influence It Using a Multi-Sensor Approach in Yunlin County, Taiwan. Remote Sensing. 2015; 7(6):8202-8223.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hsu, Wei-Chen; Chang, Hung-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Tsung; Lin, En-Kai; Liu, Jin-King; Liou, Yuei-An. 2015. "Observing Land Subsidence and Revealing the Factors That Influence It Using a Multi-Sensor Approach in Yunlin County, Taiwan" Remote Sens. 7, no. 6: 8202-8223.

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