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Article

An Effectively Dynamic Path Optimization Approach for the Tree Skeleton Extraction from Portable Laser Scanning Point Clouds

by 1, 1, 2 and 1,*
1
College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2
College of Landscape Architecture, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Qinghua Guo
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010094
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 12 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 25 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Remote Sensing)
One key step to the tree structure study is skeleton processing. Although there are lots of extraction approaches, the existing methods have paid less attention to extraction effectiveness, which highly use redundant points to formulate the skeleton and bring difficulties to the subsequent 3D modeling. This work proposes a four-step framework for the purpose of skeleton extraction. Firstly, candidate skeleton points are filtered from input data based on the spatial slice projection and grouped using the Euclidean distance analysis. Secondly, a key dynamic path optimization step is used to formulate a tree skeleton using the candidate point information. Thirdly, the optimized path is filled by interpolating points to achieve complete skeletons. Finally, short skeletons are removed based on the distance between branching points and ending points, and then, the extraction skeletons are smoothed for improving the visual quality. Our main contribution lies in that we find the global minimization cost path from every point to the root using a novel energy function. The formulated objective function contains a data term to constrain the distance between points and paths, and a smoothness term to constrain the direction continuities. Experimental scenes include three different types of trees, and input point clouds are collected by a portable laser scanning system. Skeleton extraction results demonstrate that we achieved completeness and correctness of 81.10% and 99.21%. respectively. Besides, our effectiveness is up to 79.26%, which uses only 5.82% of the input tree points in the skeleton representation, showing a promising effective solution for the tree skeleton and structure study. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree skeleton; extraction; dynamic programming; point clouds; portable laser scanning tree skeleton; extraction; dynamic programming; point clouds; portable laser scanning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, S.; Li, X.; Yun, J.; Xu, S. An Effectively Dynamic Path Optimization Approach for the Tree Skeleton Extraction from Portable Laser Scanning Point Clouds. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010094

AMA Style

Xu S, Li X, Yun J, Xu S. An Effectively Dynamic Path Optimization Approach for the Tree Skeleton Extraction from Portable Laser Scanning Point Clouds. Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(1):94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Sheng, Xin Li, Jiayan Yun, and Shanshan Xu. 2022. "An Effectively Dynamic Path Optimization Approach for the Tree Skeleton Extraction from Portable Laser Scanning Point Clouds" Remote Sensing 14, no. 1: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010094

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