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Technical Note

Validation of Recent Altimeter Missions at Non-Dedicated Tide Gauge Stations in the Southeastern North Sea

1
GFZ, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, Geodesy, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
2
BfG, The German Federal Institute of Hydrology, 56002 Koblenz, Germany
3
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sergey A. Lebedev and Ali Khenchaf
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010236
Received: 8 November 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 23 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Area Observations Based on Satellite Altimetry Data)
Consistent calibration and monitoring is a basic prerequisite for providing a reliable time series of global and regional sea-level variations from altimetry. The precisions of sea-level measurements and regional biases for six altimeter missions (Jason-1/2/3, Envisat, Saral, Sentinel-3A) are assessed in this study at 11 GNSS-controlled tide gauge stations in the German Bight (SE North Sea) for the period 2002 to 2019. The gauges are partly located at the open water, and partly at the coast close to mudflats. The altimetry is extracted at virtual stations with distances from 2 to 24 km from the gauges. The processing is optimized for the region and adjusted for the comparison with instantaneous tide gauge readings. An empirical correction is developed to account for mean height gradients and slight differences of the tidal dynamics between the gauge and altimetry, which improves the agreement between the two data sets by 15–75%. The precision of the altimeters depends on the location and mission and ranges from 1.8 to 3.7 cm if the precision of the gauges is 2 cm. The accuracy of the regional mission biases is strongly dependent on the mean sea surface heights near the stations. The most consistent biases are obtained based on the CLS2011 model with mission-dependent accuracies from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. Hence, the GNSS-controlled tide gauges operated operationally by the German Waterway and Shipping Administration (WSV) might complement the calibration and monitoring activities at dedicated CalVal stations. View Full-Text
Keywords: regional sea level; satellite altimetry; tide gauge; validation; mission bias; North Sea; Sentinel-3A; Jason-1; Jason-2; Jason-3; Envisat; Saral regional sea level; satellite altimetry; tide gauge; validation; mission bias; North Sea; Sentinel-3A; Jason-1; Jason-2; Jason-3; Envisat; Saral
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MDPI and ACS Style

Esselborn, S.; Schöne, T.; Illigner, J.; Weiß, R.; Artz, T.; Huang, X. Validation of Recent Altimeter Missions at Non-Dedicated Tide Gauge Stations in the Southeastern North Sea. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 236. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010236

AMA Style

Esselborn S, Schöne T, Illigner J, Weiß R, Artz T, Huang X. Validation of Recent Altimeter Missions at Non-Dedicated Tide Gauge Stations in the Southeastern North Sea. Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(1):236. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010236

Chicago/Turabian Style

Esselborn, Saskia, Tilo Schöne, Julia Illigner, Robert Weiß, Thomas Artz, and Xinge Huang. 2022. "Validation of Recent Altimeter Missions at Non-Dedicated Tide Gauge Stations in the Southeastern North Sea" Remote Sensing 14, no. 1: 236. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010236

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