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Open AccessArticle

Detection and Quantification of Irrigation Water Amounts at 500 m Using Sentinel-1 Surface Soil Moisture

1
Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna, Austria
2
Research Platform Data Analysis and Simulation, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalderstrasse 84, 15374 Muencheberg, Germany
3
Forschungsinstitut für Bergbaufolgelandschaften e.V., Brauhausweg 2, 03238 Finsterwalde, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giorgio Baiamonte
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(9), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091727
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
Detailed information about irrigation timing and water use at a high spatial resolution is critical for monitoring and improving agricultural water use efficiency. However, neither statistical surveys nor remote sensing-based approaches can currently accommodate this need. To address this gap, we propose a novel approach based on the TU Wien Sentinel-1 Surface Soil Moisture product, characterized by a spatial sampling of 500 m and a revisit time of 1.5–4 days over Europe. Spatiotemporal patterns of soil moisture are used to identify individual irrigation events and estimate irrigation water amounts. To retrieve the latter, we include formulations of evapotranspiration and drainage losses to account for vertical fluxes, which may significantly influence sub-daily soil moisture variations. The proposed approach was evaluated against field-scale irrigation data reported by farmers at three sites in Germany with heterogeneous field sizes, crop patterns, irrigation systems and management. Our results show that most field-scale irrigation events can be detected using soil moisture information (mean F-score = 0.77). Irrigation estimates, in terms of temporal dynamics as well as spatial patterns, were in agreement with reference data (mean Pearson correlation = 0.64) regardless of field-specific characteristics (e.g., crop type). Hence, the proposed approach has the potential to be applied over large regions with varying cropping systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: irrigation; Sentinel-1; surface soil moisture; high resolution; remote sensing; Northern Germany irrigation; Sentinel-1; surface soil moisture; high resolution; remote sensing; Northern Germany
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zappa, L.; Schlaffer, S.; Bauer-Marschallinger, B.; Nendel, C.; Zimmerman, B.; Dorigo, W. Detection and Quantification of Irrigation Water Amounts at 500 m Using Sentinel-1 Surface Soil Moisture. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1727. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091727

AMA Style

Zappa L, Schlaffer S, Bauer-Marschallinger B, Nendel C, Zimmerman B, Dorigo W. Detection and Quantification of Irrigation Water Amounts at 500 m Using Sentinel-1 Surface Soil Moisture. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(9):1727. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091727

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zappa, Luca; Schlaffer, Stefan; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Nendel, Claas; Zimmerman, Beate; Dorigo, Wouter. 2021. "Detection and Quantification of Irrigation Water Amounts at 500 m Using Sentinel-1 Surface Soil Moisture" Remote Sens. 13, no. 9: 1727. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091727

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