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Open AccessArticle

Error Analysis of LAI Measurements with LAI-2000 Due to Discrete View Angular Range Angles for Continuous Canopies

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School of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
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Intelligent Interconnected Systems Laboratory of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
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Department of Geography and Program in Planning, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Room 5047, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada
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School of Geographical Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China
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Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection, College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000, China
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School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
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Zhejiang A & F University, Linan 311331, China
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Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Aleixandre Verger and Jochem Verrelst
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(7), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13071405
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf and Canopy Biochemical and Biophysical Variables Retrieval)
As a widely used ground-based optical instrument, the LAI-2000 or LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer (PCA) (Li-Cor, Inc., Lincoln, NE) is designed to measure the plant effective leaf area index (Le) by measuring the canopy gap fraction at several limited or discrete view zenith angles (VZAs) (usually five VZAs: 7, 23, 38, 53, and 68°) based on Miller’s equation. Miller’s equation requires the probability of radiative transmission through the canopy to be measured over the hemisphere, i.e., VZAs in the range from 0 to 90°. However, the PCA view angle ranges are confined to several limited ranges or discrete sectors. The magnitude of the error produced by the discretization of VZAs in the leaf area index measurements remains difficult to determine. In this study, a theoretical deduction was first presented to definitely prove why the limited or discrete VZAs or ranges can affect the Le measured with the PCA, and the specific error caused by the limited or discrete VZAs was described quantitatively. The results show that: (1) the weight coefficient of the last PCA ring is the main cause of the error; (2) the error is closely related to the leaf inclination angles (IAs)—the Le measured with the PCA can be significantly overestimated for canopies with planophile IAs, whereas it can be underestimated for erectophile IAs; and (3) the error can be enhanced with the increment of the discrete degree of PCA rings or VZAs, such as using four or three PCA rings. Two corrections for the error are presented and validated in three crop canopies. Interestingly, although the leaf IA type cannot influence the Le calculated by Miller’s equation in the hemispheric space, it affects the Le measured with the PCA using the discrete form of Miller’s equation for several discrete VZAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: LAI-2000 or LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer; discrete view zenith angles; error; effective leaf area index; leaf inclination angle; Miller’s equation LAI-2000 or LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer; discrete view zenith angles; error; effective leaf area index; leaf inclination angle; Miller’s equation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Geng, J.; Yuan, G.; Chen, J.M.; Lyu, C.; Tu, L.; Fan, W.; Tian, Q.; Wu, Z.; Tao, T.; Yu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, J.; Xu, K.; Li, J.; Wang, S. Error Analysis of LAI Measurements with LAI-2000 Due to Discrete View Angular Range Angles for Continuous Canopies. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13071405

AMA Style

Geng J, Yuan G, Chen JM, Lyu C, Tu L, Fan W, Tian Q, Wu Z, Tao T, Yu M, Zhu Y, Huang J, Xu K, Li J, Wang S. Error Analysis of LAI Measurements with LAI-2000 Due to Discrete View Angular Range Angles for Continuous Canopies. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(7):1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13071405

Chicago/Turabian Style

Geng, Jun; Yuan, Gang; Chen, J. M.; Lyu, Chunguang; Tu, Lili; Fan, Weiliang; Tian, Qingjiu; Wu, Zhaofu; Tao, Tingye; Yu, Min; Zhu, Yongchao; Huang, Jianwei; Xu, Kaijian; Li, Jinchao; Wang, Shaoteng. 2021. "Error Analysis of LAI Measurements with LAI-2000 Due to Discrete View Angular Range Angles for Continuous Canopies" Remote Sens. 13, no. 7: 1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13071405

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