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Article

Determining Peak Altitude on Maps, Books and Cartographic Materials: Multidisciplinary Implications

1
Department of Integrated Geodesy and Cartography, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Crakow, Poland
2
Department of Tourism and Regional Studies, Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Cracow, 30-084 Cracow, Poland
3
Center for Tourism Research, Wakayama University, Wakayama-City 640-8510, Japan
4
Faculty of Regional Development and International Studies, Mendel University in Brno, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
5
Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Vettore, Andrea Masiero and Naser El-Sheimy
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(6), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061111
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
Mountain peaks and their altitude have been of interest to researchers across disciplines. Measurement methods and techniques have changed and developed over the years, leading to more accurate measurements and, consequently, more accurate determination of peak altitudes. This research transpired due to the frequency of misstatements found in existing sources including books, maps, guidebooks and the Internet. Such inaccuracies have the potential to create controversy, especially among peak-baggers in pursuit of climbing the highest summits. The Polish Sudetes Mountains were selected for this study; 24 summits in the 14 mesoregions were measured. Measurements were obtained employing the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR), both modern and highly precise techniques. Moreover, to determine the accuracy of measurements, several of the summits were measured using a mobile phone as an additional method. We compare GNSS vs. LiDAR and verify the level of confidence of peak heights obtained by automatic methods from LiDAR data alone. The GNSS receiver results showed a discrepancy of approximately 10 m compared with other information sources examined. Findings indicate that the heights of peaks presented in cartographic materials are inaccurate, especially in lesser-known mountain ranges. Furthermore, among all the mountain ranges examined, the results demonstrated that five of the summits were no longer classed as the highest, potentially impacting tourist perceptions and subsequent visitation. Overall, due to the topographical relief characteristics and varying vegetation cover of mountains, we argue that the re-measuring procedure should comprise two steps: (1) develop high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) based on LiDAR; (2) assumed heights should be measured using precise GNSS receivers. Unfortunately, due to the time constraints and the prohibitive costs of GNSS, LiDAR continues to be the most common source of new altitude data. View Full-Text
Keywords: altitude determination; cartography; GNSS; LiDAR; mountains altitude determination; cartography; GNSS; LiDAR; mountains
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maciuk, K.; Apollo, M.; Cheer, J.M.; Konečný, O.; Kozioł, K.; Kudrys, J.; Mostowska, J.; Róg, M.; Skorupa, B.; Szombara, S. Determining Peak Altitude on Maps, Books and Cartographic Materials: Multidisciplinary Implications. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1111. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061111

AMA Style

Maciuk K, Apollo M, Cheer JM, Konečný O, Kozioł K, Kudrys J, Mostowska J, Róg M, Skorupa B, Szombara S. Determining Peak Altitude on Maps, Books and Cartographic Materials: Multidisciplinary Implications. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(6):1111. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maciuk, Kamil; Apollo, Michal; Cheer, Joseph M.; Konečný, Ondřej; Kozioł, Krystian; Kudrys, Jacek; Mostowska, Joanna; Róg, Marta; Skorupa, Bogdan; Szombara, Stanisław. 2021. "Determining Peak Altitude on Maps, Books and Cartographic Materials: Multidisciplinary Implications" Remote Sens. 13, no. 6: 1111. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061111

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