Next Article in Journal
Application of Sentinel-1 and-2 Images in Measuring the Deformation of Kuh-e-Namak (Dashti) Namakier, Iran
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Lin, Y., et al. Road Extraction from Very-High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images via a Nested SE-Deeplab Model. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2985
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differences in Cloud Radar Phase and Power in Co- and Cross-Channel—Indicator of Lightning
Article

Time Evolution of Storms Producing Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data, GPS, Lightning and Geostationary Satellite Observations

1
CNR-ISAC, National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, 00100 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milan, Italy
3
Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
4
INAF-OAS, National Institute for Astrophysics, Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio, 40129 Bologna, Italy
5
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, 40129 Bologna, Italy
6
Geomatics Research & Development s.r.l., 22074 Lomazzo, Italy
7
INAF-IAPS, National Institute for Astrophysics, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, 00100 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bastiaan Van Diedenhoven
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(4), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040784
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
In this article, we report the first investigation over time of the atmospheric conditions around terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) occurrences, using GPS sensors in combination with geostationary satellite observations and ERA5 reanalysis data. The goal is to understand which characteristics are favorable to the development of these events and to investigate if any precursor signals can be expected. A total of 9 TGFs, occurring at a distance lower than 45 km from a GPS sensor, were analyzed and two of them are shown here as an example analysis. Moreover, the lightning activity, collected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), was used in order to identify any links and correlations with TGF occurrence and precipitable water vapor (PWV) trends. The combined use of GPS and the stroke rate trends identified, for all cases, a recurring pattern in which an increase in PWV is observed on a timescale of about two hours before the TGF occurrence that can be placed within the lightning peak. The temporal relation between the PWV trend and TGF occurrence is strictly related to the position of GPS sensors in relation to TGF coordinates. The life cycle of these storms observed by geostationary sensors described TGF-producing clouds as intense with a wide range of extensions and, in all cases, the TGF is located at the edge of the convective cell. Furthermore, the satellite data provide an added value in associating the GPS water vapor trend to the convective cell generating the TGF. The investigation with ERA5 reanalysis data showed that TGFs mainly occur in convective environments with unexceptional values with respect to the monthly average value of parameters measured at the same location. Moreover, the analysis showed the strong potential of the use of GPS data for the troposphere characterization in areas with complex territorial morphologies. This study provides indications on the dynamics of con-vective systems linked to TGFs and will certainly help refine our understanding of their production, as well as highlighting a potential approach through the use of GPS data to explore the lightning activity trend and TGF occurrences. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPS; geostationary; lighting; water vapour GPS; geostationary; lighting; water vapour
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tiberia, A.; Mascitelli, A.; D’Adderio, L.P.; Federico, S.; Marisaldi, M.; Porcù, F.; Realini, E.; Gatti, A.; Ursi, A.; Fuschino, F.; Tavani, M.; Dietrich, S. Time Evolution of Storms Producing Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data, GPS, Lightning and Geostationary Satellite Observations. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 784. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040784

AMA Style

Tiberia A, Mascitelli A, D’Adderio LP, Federico S, Marisaldi M, Porcù F, Realini E, Gatti A, Ursi A, Fuschino F, Tavani M, Dietrich S. Time Evolution of Storms Producing Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data, GPS, Lightning and Geostationary Satellite Observations. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(4):784. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040784

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tiberia, Alessandra, Alessandra Mascitelli, Leo P. D’Adderio, Stefano Federico, Martino Marisaldi, Federico Porcù, Eugenio Realini, Andrea Gatti, Alessandro Ursi, Fabio Fuschino, Marco Tavani, and Stefano Dietrich. 2021. "Time Evolution of Storms Producing Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data, GPS, Lightning and Geostationary Satellite Observations" Remote Sensing 13, no. 4: 784. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040784

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop