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Article

Orthorectification of Helicopter-Borne High Resolution Experimental Burn Observation from Infra Red Handheld Imagers

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Centre for Technological Risk Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Environmental Monitoring and Modelling Research Group, Department of Geography, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK
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Leverhulme Centre for Wildfires, Environment and Society, Department of Geography, King’s College London, London WC2B 4BG, UK
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Wildland Fire Science Lab, USDA Forest Service, 400 N 34th St., Suite 201, Seattle, WA 98103, USA
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CECI, Université de Toulouse, 31100 Toulouse, France
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Laboratory for the Physical Systems of the Environment, Université de Corse, 20250 Corte, France
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ZEBRIS Geo-IT GmbH, Lipowskystr 26, D-81373 Munich, Germany
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German Remote Sensing Data Center, German Aerospace Center, Kalkhorstweg 53, D-17235 Neustrelitz, Germany
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Optical Information Systems, German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
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Satellite Analysis Branch, NOAA, NESDIS, College Park, MD 20740, USA
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Conservation Department, Kruger National Park, South African National Parks, Private Bag X402, Skukuza 1350, South Africa
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School of Natural Resource Management, Nelson Mandela University, Private Bag X6531, George 6530, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: João Neves Silva and Melanie Vanderhoof
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(23), 4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234913
Received: 27 September 2021 / Revised: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 3 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
To pursue the development and validation of coupled fire-atmosphere models, the wildland fire modeling community needs validation data sets with scenarios where fire-induced winds influence fire front behavior, and with high temporal and spatial resolution. Helicopter-borne infrared thermal cameras have the potential to monitor landscape-scale wildland fires at a high resolution during experimental burns. To extract valuable information from those observations, three-step image processing is required: (a) Orthorectification to warp raw images on a fixed coordinate system grid, (b) segmentation to delineate the fire front location out of the orthorectified images, and (c) computation of fire behavior metrics such as the rate of spread from the time-evolving fire front location. This work is dedicated to the first orthorectification step, and presents a series of algorithms that are designed to process handheld helicopter-borne thermal images collected during savannah experimental burns. The novelty in the approach lies on its recursive design, which does not require the presence of fixed ground control points, hence relaxing the constraint on field of view coverage and helping the acquisition of high-frequency observations. For four burns ranging from four to eight hectares, long-wave and mid infra red images were collected at 1 and 3 Hz, respectively, and orthorectified at a high spatial resolution (<1 m) with an absolute accuracy estimated to be lower than 4 m. Subsequent computation of fire radiative power is discussed with comparison to concurrent space-borne measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire behavior; experimental burn; image processing; orthorectification; infra red fire behavior; experimental burn; image processing; orthorectification; infra red
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.J.; Mell, W.E.; Rochoux, M.C.; Filippi, J.-B.; Rücker, G.; Frauenberger, O.; Lorenz, E.; Schroeder, W.; Main, B.; Govender, N. Orthorectification of Helicopter-Borne High Resolution Experimental Burn Observation from Infra Red Handheld Imagers. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 4913. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234913

AMA Style

Paugam R, Wooster MJ, Mell WE, Rochoux MC, Filippi J-B, Rücker G, Frauenberger O, Lorenz E, Schroeder W, Main B, Govender N. Orthorectification of Helicopter-Borne High Resolution Experimental Burn Observation from Infra Red Handheld Imagers. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(23):4913. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234913

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paugam, Ronan, Martin J. Wooster, William E. Mell, Mélanie C. Rochoux, Jean-Baptiste Filippi, Gernot Rücker, Olaf Frauenberger, Eckehard Lorenz, Wilfrid Schroeder, Bruce Main, and Navashni Govender. 2021. "Orthorectification of Helicopter-Borne High Resolution Experimental Burn Observation from Infra Red Handheld Imagers" Remote Sensing 13, no. 23: 4913. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234913

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