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Article

Numerical Study of Global ELF Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Respect to Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling

1
Department of Space Physics, School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
National Institute of Natural Hazards, Ministry of Emergency Management of China, Beijing 100085, China
3
Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ali Khenchaf
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(20), 4107; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204107
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
Before and after earthquakes, abnormal physical and chemical phenomena can be observed by gathering ground-based and satellite data and interpreted by the lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling (LAIC) mechanism. In this study, we focused on the mechanism of LAIC electromagnetic radiation and investigated the seismic electromagnetic (EM) wave generated in the lithosphere by earthquakes and its global propagation process from the lithosphere through the atmosphere and into the bottom of ionosphere, in order to analyze the abnormal disturbance of ground-based and space-based observation results. First, analytic formulas of the electrokinetic effect were used to simulate the generation and propagation process of the seismic EM wave in the lithosphere, interpreted as the conversion process of the seismic wave and EM wave in porous media. Second, we constructed a three-dimensional Earth–ionosphere waveguide by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to model the global propagation process of the seismic EM wave into the atmosphere and cavity between the bottom of the ionosphere and the surface of the Earth. By combining the model of the electrokinetic effect in the lithosphere with the numerical model of the Earth–ionosphere waveguide in the atmosphere and ionosphere, we numerically simulated the global transmission process of extremely low-frequency (ELF: 3 Hz–3000 Hz) EM waves which are related to earthquakes. The propagation parameters of coseismic ELF EM waves with different duration times and center frequencies were analyzed and summarized. The simulation results demonstrate that the distribution characteristics of an electric field along longitude, latitude and altitude with time are periodic and the time interval during which an EM wave travels around the whole Earth is approximately 0.155 s when adopting the conductivity of the knee profile. We also compared the observation data with the simulation results and found that the attenuating trends of the ELF electric field are consistent. This proposed ELF EM wave propagation model of lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling is very promising for the explanation of abnormal disturbances of ground-based and space-based observation results of ELF EM fields which are associated with earthquakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling; ELF electromagnetic radiation; multi-layer electromagnetic wave model; numerical modeling; wave propagation; electrical properties lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling; ELF electromagnetic radiation; multi-layer electromagnetic wave model; numerical modeling; wave propagation; electrical properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Z.; Zhou, C.; Zhao, S.; Xu, X.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y.; Liao, L.; Shen, X. Numerical Study of Global ELF Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Respect to Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 4107. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204107

AMA Style

Wang Z, Zhou C, Zhao S, Xu X, Liu M, Liu Y, Liao L, Shen X. Numerical Study of Global ELF Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Respect to Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(20):4107. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Zhuangkai, Chen Zhou, Shufan Zhao, Xiang Xu, Moran Liu, Yi Liu, Li Liao, and Xuhui Shen. 2021. "Numerical Study of Global ELF Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Respect to Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling" Remote Sensing 13, no. 20: 4107. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204107

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