# Automatic Reconstruction of Building Façade Model from Photogrammetric Mesh Model

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Overview of the Approach

#### 2.2. Component Decomposition Based on Contours Analysis

#### 2.2.1. Contour Segment Pair Generation

#### 2.2.2. Decomposition of Components

#### 2.3. Cuboid Abstraction

_{d}(T

_{d}is experimentally set equal to 0.2 m in the present study), the points are removed, and the remaining ones are utilized to fit a new plane again for the corresponding side of the cuboid. By taking Figure 5 as an example, it can be seen in Figure 5a (the top view of model component) that there is one protuberance on the north side. The original cuboid is a rectangle with green color, which does not well fit to the point cloud. After removing the possible noise part, a new cuboid is fitted and marked as yellow color in Figure 5b, and the fitted model snapped the point cloud well.

_{2}(T

_{2}is experimentally set equal to 0.2 m) are grown to gather the non-overlapping regions to region groups. The regions with values less than a predefined value on the vertex number and areas are overlooked, and the predefined value of the vertex number and areas are determined according to the target detail of the model. For the remaining groups, robust cuboid fitting processing is performed to derive the next level of cuboids. After generating the next level of cuboid using the remained non-overlapping region, there will be a slight bias from the previous level of the cuboid. In Figure 6a, the top view illustrates the whole process since the façade is vertical to the ground. As observed, the corner of the current cuboid is not on the first level of the cuboid. To avoid this problem, as shown in Figure 6b, the coordinates of the current level of the cuboid are extended to intersect with the nearby cuboid sides, and the new intersect point will be used to replace the original cuboid corner to guarantee the close of the model.

#### 2.4. Parameter Adjustment of Cuboid Model Based on the Least Square Method

## 3. Experiment Results and Analysis

#### 3.1. Date Description

#### 3.2. Resontruction Results and Analysis

#### 3.3. Reconstruc Result on a Whole Scene

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Comparison

#### 4.2. Limitation of the Proposed Method

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The workflow of the proposed approach: (

**a**) input of the photogrammetric mesh model; (

**b**,

**c**) segmented components; (

**d**,

**e**) minimum circumscribed cuboids; (

**f**) adjusting model; (

**g**) final 3D building façade model.

**Figure 2.**An illustration of the local contour tree of the photogrammetric mesh model: (

**a**) contours tracking results; (

**b**) local contour tree generation result.

**Figure 3.**Illustration of decomposition of the photogrammetric mesh model: (

**a**) decomposed photogrammetric mesh model components; (

**b**) photogrammetric mesh model components after modification.

**Figure 5.**Illustration of the robust cuboid fitting segmentation: (

**a**) top view of the model component; (

**b**) fitting result.

**Figure 6.**Top view of extending the endpoint of the non-overlapping region to the nearest plane: (

**a**) the two endpoints (red circle) before extension; (

**b**) the two endpoints after extension.

**Figure 7.**Illustration of the cuboid abstraction processing: (

**a**) input of the original photogrammetric mesh model; (

**b**) the first fitted cuboid; (

**c**) the modification of the first fitted cuboid; (

**d**) the second fitted cuboid; (

**e**) combined cuboid abstraction result.

**Figure 8.**The reconstruction results. Each row (from left to right) presents the original photogrammetric mesh model, initial cuboid abstraction set, façade model overlaid on the original date, and 3D building façade model.

**Figure 9.**The graphics of reconstruction errors for four buildings: (

**a**,

**c**,

**e**,

**g**) façade model overlaid on the original date; (

**b**,

**d**,

**f**,

**h**) reconstruction error.

Test Data | Number of Vertices | Number of Triangle Facets |
---|---|---|

Building A | 4324 | 8081 |

Building B | 2647 | 4899 |

Building C | 3424 | 6322 |

Building D | 1834 | 3358 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.
Automatic Reconstruction of Building Façade Model from Photogrammetric Mesh Model. *Remote Sens.* **2021**, *13*, 3801.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13193801

**AMA Style**

Zhang Y, Zhang C, Chen S, Chen X.
Automatic Reconstruction of Building Façade Model from Photogrammetric Mesh Model. *Remote Sensing*. 2021; 13(19):3801.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13193801

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Yunsheng, Chi Zhang, Siyang Chen, and Xueye Chen.
2021. "Automatic Reconstruction of Building Façade Model from Photogrammetric Mesh Model" *Remote Sensing* 13, no. 19: 3801.
https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13193801