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Article

Quality Evaluation of Digital Twins Generated Based on UAV Photogrammetry and TLS: Bridge Case Study

1
Centre for Infrastructure Engineering, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
2
Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabio Tosti, Biswajeet Pradhan and Magaly Koch
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(17), 3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13173499
Received: 13 July 2021 / Revised: 19 August 2021 / Accepted: 30 August 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Monitoring Using Remote Sensors)
In the current modern era of information and technology, emerging remote advancements have been widely established for detailed virtual inspections and assessments of infrastructure assets, especially bridges. These technologies are capable of creating an accurate digital representation of the existing assets, commonly known as the digital twins. Digital twins are suitable alternatives to in-person and on-site based assessments that can provide safer, cheaper, more reliable, and less distributive bridge inspections. In the case of bridge monitoring, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) are among the most common advanced technologies that hold the potential to provide qualitative digital models; however, the research is still lacking a reliable methodology to evaluate the generated point clouds in terms of quality and geometric accuracy for a bridge size case study. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive methodology along with a thorough bridge case study to evaluate two digital point clouds developed from an existing Australian heritage bridge via both UAV-based photogrammetry and TLS. In this regard, a range of proposed approaches were employed to compare point clouds in terms of points’ distribution, level of outlier noise, data completeness, surface deviation, and geometric accuracy. The comparative results of this case study not only proved the capability and applicability of the proposed methodology and approaches in evaluating these two voluminous point clouds, but they also exhibited a higher level of point density and more acceptable agreements with as-is measurements in TLS-based point clouds subjected to the implementation of a precise data capture and a 3D reconstruction model. View Full-Text
Keywords: digital twin; quality evaluation; geometric accuracy; point cloud; UAV-based photogrammetry; terrestrial laser scanning (TLS); bridge inspection digital twin; quality evaluation; geometric accuracy; point cloud; UAV-based photogrammetry; terrestrial laser scanning (TLS); bridge inspection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammadi, M.; Rashidi, M.; Mousavi, V.; Karami, A.; Yu, Y.; Samali, B. Quality Evaluation of Digital Twins Generated Based on UAV Photogrammetry and TLS: Bridge Case Study. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3499. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13173499

AMA Style

Mohammadi M, Rashidi M, Mousavi V, Karami A, Yu Y, Samali B. Quality Evaluation of Digital Twins Generated Based on UAV Photogrammetry and TLS: Bridge Case Study. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(17):3499. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13173499

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohammadi, Masoud, Maria Rashidi, Vahid Mousavi, Ali Karami, Yang Yu, and Bijan Samali. 2021. "Quality Evaluation of Digital Twins Generated Based on UAV Photogrammetry and TLS: Bridge Case Study" Remote Sensing 13, no. 17: 3499. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13173499

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