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Article

Raindrop Size Distributions of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones Observed at the Coastal and Inland Stations in South India

1
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, National Central University, Zhongli District, Taoyuan City 320317, Taiwan
2
National Centre for Earth Science Studies, ESSO-MoES, Government of India, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, India
3
Earthquake-Disaster & Risk Evaluation and Management Center, National Central University, Zhongli District, Taoyuan City 320317, Taiwan
4
Research Center for Hazard Mitigation and Prevention, National Central University, Zhongli District, Taoyuan City 320317, Taiwan
5
Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
6
Semi-Arid Zonal Atmospheric Research Centre, Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516002, India
7
Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National Universiy, Busan 48513, Korea
8
Atmospheric Environmental Research Institute, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
9
National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Noida 201309, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Balaji Kumar Seela and Jayalakshmi Janapati contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Sanghun Lim and Shaik Allabakash
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(16), 3178; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163178
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 11 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of Radar Meteorology and Hydrology)
The current study summarizes the raindrop size distributions (RSDs) characteristic of the North Indian Ocean (NIO) tropical cyclones (TCs) measured with ground-based disdrometers installed at the coastal (Thiruvananthapuram, 8.5335°N, 76.9047°E) and inland (Kadapa, 14.4742°N, 78.7098°E) stations in south India. The NIO TCs observed at the coastal station showed more mid- and large-size drops (>1 mm) than the inland station. On the other hand, for both inland and coastal stations, small and mid-size drops (<3 mm) primarily contributed to the total number concentration and rainfall rate. The RSDs of the NIO TCs segregated into precipitation types (stratiform and convective) demonstrated the presence of more mid- and large-size drops at the coastal station. The RSD relations of the NIO TCs, which are used in rain retrieval algorithms of remote sensing (global precipitation measurement) radars, exhibited contrasts between the coastal and inland station. Further, the NIO TCs’ rainfall kinetic energy relations, which are crucial in rainfall erosivity studies, estimated for the coastal station revealed dissimilar characteristics to that of the inland station. The conceivable thermo-dynamical and microphysical processes that are accountable for the disparities in the NIO TCs RSDs measured at the coastal and inland stations are also elucidated in this work. View Full-Text
Keywords: raindrop size distributions (RSDs); disdrometer; North Indian Ocean (NIO); tropical cyclones (TCs); rainfall kinetic energy; rainfall rate raindrop size distributions (RSDs); disdrometer; North Indian Ocean (NIO); tropical cyclones (TCs); rainfall kinetic energy; rainfall rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seela, B.K.; Janapati, J.; Kalath Unnikrishnan, C.; Lin, P.-L.; Le Loh, J.; Chang, W.-Y.; Kumar, U.; Reddy, K.K.; Lee, D.-I.; Venkatrami Reddy, M. Raindrop Size Distributions of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones Observed at the Coastal and Inland Stations in South India. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3178. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163178

AMA Style

Seela BK, Janapati J, Kalath Unnikrishnan C, Lin P-L, Le Loh J, Chang W-Y, Kumar U, Reddy KK, Lee D-I, Venkatrami Reddy M. Raindrop Size Distributions of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones Observed at the Coastal and Inland Stations in South India. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(16):3178. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163178

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seela, Balaji K., Jayalakshmi Janapati, Chirikandath Kalath Unnikrishnan, Pay-Liam Lin, Jui Le Loh, Wei-Yu Chang, Utpal Kumar, K. K. Reddy, Dong-In Lee, and Mannem Venkatrami Reddy. 2021. "Raindrop Size Distributions of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones Observed at the Coastal and Inland Stations in South India" Remote Sensing 13, no. 16: 3178. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163178

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