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Article

Spreading of Lagrangian Particles in the Black Sea: A Comparison between Drifters and a High-Resolution Ocean Model

1
Thermal Radiation Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092, Tunisia
2
Division of Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34010 Sgonico (TS), Italy
3
Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
4
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kaoru Ichikawa
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(13), 2603; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132603
Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 22 June 2021 / Accepted: 26 June 2021 / Published: 2 July 2021
The Lagrangian dispersion statistics of the Black Sea are estimated using satellite-tracked drifters, satellite altimeter data and a high-resolution ocean model. Comparison between the in-situ measurements and the model reveals good agreement in terms of the surface dispersion. The mean sub-basin coherent structures and currents of the Black Sea are well reproduced by the model. Seasonal variability of the dispersion in the upper (15 m), intermediate (150 m) and deep (750 m) layers are discussed with a special focus of the role of sub-basin scale structures and currents on the turbulent dispersion regimes. In terms of the surface relative dispersion, the results show the presence of the three known turbulent exponential, Richardson and diffusive-like regimes. The non-local exponential regime is only detected by the model for scales <10 km, while the local Richardson regime occurs between 10 and 100 km in all cases due to the presence of an inverse energy cascade range, and the diffusive-like regime is well detected for the largest distance by drifters (100–300 km) in winter/spring. Regarding the surface absolute dispersion, it reflects the occurrence of both quasi-ballistic and random-walk regimes at small and large times, respectively, while the two anomalous hyperbolic (5/4) and elliptic (5/3) regimes, which are related to the topology of the Black Sea, are detected at intermediate times. At depth, the signatures of the relative and absolute dispersion regimes shown in the surface layer are still valid in most cases. The absolute dispersion is anisotropic; the zonal component grows faster than the meridional component in any scenario. View Full-Text
Keywords: Black Sea; drifters; model; dispersion; regimes Black Sea; drifters; model; dispersion; regimes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bouzaiene, M.; Menna, M.; Elhmaidi, D.; Dilmahamod, A.F.; Poulain, P.-M. Spreading of Lagrangian Particles in the Black Sea: A Comparison between Drifters and a High-Resolution Ocean Model. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2603. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132603

AMA Style

Bouzaiene M, Menna M, Elhmaidi D, Dilmahamod AF, Poulain P-M. Spreading of Lagrangian Particles in the Black Sea: A Comparison between Drifters and a High-Resolution Ocean Model. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(13):2603. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132603

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bouzaiene, Maher, Milena Menna, Dalila Elhmaidi, Ahmad Fehmi Dilmahamod, and Pierre-Marie Poulain. 2021. "Spreading of Lagrangian Particles in the Black Sea: A Comparison between Drifters and a High-Resolution Ocean Model" Remote Sensing 13, no. 13: 2603. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13132603

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