Next Article in Journal
Landslide Mapping and Monitoring Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) Technique in the French Alps
Next Article in Special Issue
SCoBi Multilayer: A Signals of Opportunity Reflectometry Model for Multilayer Dielectric Reflections
Previous Article in Journal
Detecting Change in Forest Structure with Simulated GEDI Lidar Waveforms: A Case Study of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) Infestation
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Modified Model for Electromagnetic Scattering of Sea Surface Covered with Crest Foam and Static Foam
Article

Mapping and Assessment of Tree Roots Using Ground Penetrating Radar with Low-Cost GPS

1
School of Computing and Engineering, University of West London (UWL), London W5 5RF, UK
2
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
3
Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808576, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081300
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 18 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Modeling in Microwave Remote Sensing)
In this paper, we have presented a methodology combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a low-cost GPS receiver for three-dimensional detection of tree roots. This research aims to provide an effective and affordable testing tool to assess the root system of a number of trees. For this purpose, a low-cost GPS receiver was used, which recorded the approximate position of each GPR track, collected with a 500 MHz RAMAC shielded antenna. A dedicated post-processing methodology based on the precise position of the satellite data, satellite clock offsets data, and a local reference Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) Station close to the survey site was developed. Firstly, the positioning information of local GEONET stations was used to filter out the errors caused by satellite position error, satellite clock offset, and ionosphere. In addition, the advanced Kalman filter was designed to minimise receiver offset and the multipath error, in order to obtain a high precision position of each GPR track. Kirchhoff migration considering near-field effect was used to identify the three-dimensional distribution of the root. In a later stage, a novel processing scheme was used to detect and clearly map the coarse roots of the investigated tree. A successful case study is proposed, which supports the following premise: the current scheme is an affordable and accurate mapping method of the root system architecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree roots mapping; ground penetrating radar (GPR); low-cost GPS; data processing methodology; 3D GPR tree roots mapping; ground penetrating radar (GPR); low-cost GPS; data processing methodology; 3D GPR
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Zou, L.; Wang, Y.; Giannakis, I.; Tosti, F.; Alani, A.M.; Sato, M. Mapping and Assessment of Tree Roots Using Ground Penetrating Radar with Low-Cost GPS. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081300

AMA Style

Zou L, Wang Y, Giannakis I, Tosti F, Alani AM, Sato M. Mapping and Assessment of Tree Roots Using Ground Penetrating Radar with Low-Cost GPS. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(8):1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zou, Lilong, Yan Wang, Iraklis Giannakis, Fabio Tosti, Amir M. Alani, and Motoyuki Sato. 2020. "Mapping and Assessment of Tree Roots Using Ground Penetrating Radar with Low-Cost GPS" Remote Sensing 12, no. 8: 1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081300

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop