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Open AccessArticle

A Quasigeoid-Derived Transformation Model Accounting for Land Subsidence in the Mekong Delta towards Height System Unification in Vietnam

1
Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
2
Department of Geodesy, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
3
Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
4
Laboratory of Gravity Field Research and Applications—GravLab, Department of Geodesy and Surveying, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(5), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12050817
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodesy for Gravity and Height Systems)
A vertical offset model for Vietnam and its surrounding areas was determined based on the differences between height anomalies derived from 779 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)/levelling points and those derived from a dedicated high-resolution gravimetric-only quasigeoid model called GEOID_LSC. First, the deterministic transformation model to effectively fit the differences between the quasigeoid and GNSS/levelling heights was based on a third-order polynomial model. Second, the residual height anomalies have been interpolated to a grid employing Least-Squares Collocation. Finally, the distortions were restored to the residual grid. This model can be used for combination with a gravimetric quasigeoid model in GNSS levelling. The quality of GNSS/levelling data in Vietnam was analyzed and evaluated in this study. The annual subsidence rate from ALOS-1 was also used to analyze the effects of subsidence on the quality of GNSS/levelling data in the Mekong Delta. From this we made corrections to improve the accuracy of GNSS/levelling data in this region. The offset model was evaluated using cross-validation technique by comparing with GNSS/levelling data. Results indicate that the offset model has a standard deviation of 5.9 cm in the absolute sense. Based on this offset model, GNSS levelling can be carried out in most of Vietnam’s territory complying third-order levelling requirements, while the accuracy requirements for fourth-order levelling networks is met for the entire country. This model in combination with the developed gravimetric quasigeoid model should also contribute to the modernization of Vietnam’s height system. We also used high-quality GNSS/levelling data and the determined quasigeoid model to determine the geopotential value W0 for the Vietnam Local Vertical Datum. The gravity potential of the Vietnam Local Vertical Datum is estimated equal to W 0 LVD = 62,636,846.81 ± 0.70 m2s−2 with the global equipotential surface realized by the conventional value W0 = 62,636,853.4 m2s−2. View Full-Text
Keywords: quasigeoid; GNSS/levelling; gravity potential; local vertical datum quasigeoid; GNSS/levelling; gravity potential; local vertical datum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vu, D.T.; Bruinsma, S.; Bonvalot, S.; Remy, D.; Vergos, G.S. A Quasigeoid-Derived Transformation Model Accounting for Land Subsidence in the Mekong Delta towards Height System Unification in Vietnam. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 817.

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