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Article

Monitoring Surface Displacement of a Deep-Seated Landslide by a Low-Cost and near Real-Time GNSS System

1
Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimičeva 14, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Geomatics Research & Development srl, 22074 Lomazzo, Italy
4
Saphyrion Sagl, 6934 Bioggio, Switzerland
5
European GNSS Agency, 170 00 Praha, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(20), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203375
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 7 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
A prototype of a low-cost GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) monitoring system was installed on a deep-seated landslide in north-western Slovenia to test its performance under field conditions. The system consists of newly developed GNSS stations based on low-cost, dual-frequency receivers and open-source GNSS processing software. It automatically receives GNSS data and transmits them over the Internet. The system processes the data server-side and makes them available to the end user via a web portal. The detected surface displacements were evaluated through a comparison with the network of classic geodetic measurements. The results of a nine-month monitoring period using seven GNSS stations provided a detailed insight into the spatial and temporal pattern of deep-seated landslide surface movements. The displacement data were correlated with precipitation measurements at the site to reveal how different parts of the landslide react to rainfall. These data form the basis for the further development of an early-warning system which will help to manage the risk the landslide poses to the local population and infrastructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; landslide; GNSS; classic geodetic measurement; Slovenia remote sensing; landslide; GNSS; classic geodetic measurement; Slovenia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šegina, E.; Peternel, T.; Urbančič, T.; Realini, E.; Zupan, M.; Jež, J.; Caldera, S.; Gatti, A.; Tagliaferro, G.; Consoli, A.; González, J.R.; Auflič, M.J. Monitoring Surface Displacement of a Deep-Seated Landslide by a Low-Cost and near Real-Time GNSS System. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203375

AMA Style

Šegina E, Peternel T, Urbančič T, Realini E, Zupan M, Jež J, Caldera S, Gatti A, Tagliaferro G, Consoli A, González JR, Auflič MJ. Monitoring Surface Displacement of a Deep-Seated Landslide by a Low-Cost and near Real-Time GNSS System. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(20):3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203375

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šegina, Ela, Tina Peternel, Tilen Urbančič, Eugenio Realini, Matija Zupan, Jernej Jež, Stefano Caldera, Andrea Gatti, Giulio Tagliaferro, Angelo Consoli, Joaquín Reyes González, and Mateja Jemec Auflič. 2020. "Monitoring Surface Displacement of a Deep-Seated Landslide by a Low-Cost and near Real-Time GNSS System" Remote Sensing 12, no. 20: 3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203375

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