The determination of slant total electron content (STEC) between satellites and receivers is the first step for establishing an ionospheric model. However, the leveling errors, caused by the smoothed ambiguity solutions in the carrier-to-code leveling (CCL) method, degrade the performance of ionosphere modeling and differential code bias (DCB) estimation. To reduce the leveling errors, an uncombined and undifferenced precise point positioning (PPP) method with ambiguity resolution (AR) was used to directly extract the STEC. Firstly, the ionospheric observables were estimated with CCL, PPP float-ambiguity solutions, and PPP fixed-ambiguity solutions, respectively, to analyze the short-term temporal variation of receiver DCB in zero or short baselines. Then, the global ionospheric map (GIM) was modeled using three types of ionospheric observables based on the single-layer model (SLM) assumption. Compared with the CCL method, the slight variations of receiver DCBs can be obviously distinguished using high precise ionospheric observables, with a 58.4% and 71.2% improvement of the standard deviation (STD) for PPP float-ambiguity and fixed-ambiguity solutions, respectively. For ionosphere modeling, the 24.7% and 27.9% improvements for posteriori residuals were achieved for PPP float-ambiguity and fixed-ambiguity solutions, compared to the CCL method. The corresponding improvement for residuals of the vertical total electron contents (VTECs) compared with the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) final GIM products in global accuracy was 9.2% and 13.7% for PPP float-ambiguity and fixed-ambiguity solutions, respectively. The results show that the PPP fixed-ambiguity solution is the best one for the GIM product modeling and satellite DCBs estimation.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited