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Open AccessArticle

Role and Mechanisms of Black Carbon Affecting Water Vapor Transport to Tibet

1
Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020231
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
Although some studies reported the impact of black carbon (BC) on the climate over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the contribution and mechanisms of BC affecting the water vapor transport to Tibet are not fully understood yet. Here, utilizing the satellite observations and reanalysis data, the effects of BC on the climate over the TP and water vapor transport to the Tibet were investigated by the Community Earth System Model (CESM 2.1.0). Due to the addition of BC, a positive net heat forcing (average is 0.39 W/m2) is exerted at the surface, which induces a pronounced warming effect over the TP and consequently intensifies the East Asian Summer monsoon (EASM). However, significant cooling effects in northern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran are induced due to the BC and related feedbacks, which reduces significantly the meridional land–sea thermal contrast and finally weakens the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM). Consequently, the water vapor transport to the south border is decreased due to addition of BC. Moreover, through affecting the atmospheric circulation, the BC could induce an increase in the imported water vapor from the west and east borders of the TP, and an increase outflowing away from the north border of the TP. Overall, due to the BC, the annual mean net importing water vapor over TP is around 271 Gt, which could enhance the precipitation over the TP. The results show that the mean increase in the precipitation over TP is about 0.56 mm/day. View Full-Text
Keywords: black carbon; Tibetan plateau; water vapor transport; South Asian summer monsoon; East Asian summer monsoon black carbon; Tibetan plateau; water vapor transport; South Asian summer monsoon; East Asian summer monsoon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, M.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Tang, Y.; Alam, K. Role and Mechanisms of Black Carbon Affecting Water Vapor Transport to Tibet. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 231.

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