Next Article in Journal
Reducing Global Environmental Uncertainties in Reports of Tropical Forest Carbon Fluxes to REDD+ and the Paris Agreement Global Stocktake
Next Article in Special Issue
Towards a Large-Scale 3D Modeling of the Built Environment—Joint Analysis of TanDEM-X, Sentinel-2 and Open Street Map Data
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Ocean Color Remote Sensing Algorithms for Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients and Optical Depths with Data Collected on BGC-Argo Floats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Predicting Near-Future Built-Settlement Expansion Using Relative Changes in Small Area Populations
Article

Towards Circumpolar Mapping of Arctic Settlements and Infrastructure Based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2

1
b.geos, 2100 Korneuburg, Austria
2
Austrian Polar Research Institute, c/o Universität Wien, 1010 Vienna, Austria
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(15), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12152368
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
Infrastructure expands rapidly in the Arctic due to industrial development. At the same time, climate change impacts are pronounced in the Arctic. Ground temperatures are, for example, increasing as well as coastal erosion. A consistent account of the current human footprint is needed in order to evaluate the impact on the environments as well as risk for infrastructure. Identification of roads and settlements with satellite data is challenging due to the size of single features and low density of clusters. Spatial resolution and spectral characteristics of satellite data are the main issues regarding their separation. The Copernicus Sentinel-1 and -2 missions recently provided good spatial coverage and at the same time comparably high pixel spacing starting with 10 m for modes available across the entire Arctic. The purpose of this study was to assess the capabilities of both, Sentinel-1 C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and the Sentinel-2 multispectral information for Arctic focused mapping. Settings differ across the Arctic (historic settlements versus industrial, locations on bedrock versus tundra landscapes) and reference data are scarce and inconsistent. The type of features and data scarcity demand specific classification approaches. The machine learning approaches Gradient Boosting Machines (GBM) and deep learning (DL)-based semantic segmentation have been tested. Records for the Alaskan North Slope, Western Greenland, and Svalbard in addition to high-resolution satellite data have been used for validation and calibration. Deep learning is superior to GBM with respect to users accuracy. GBM therefore requires comprehensive postprocessing. SAR provides added value in case of GBM. VV is of benefit for road identification and HH for detection of buildings. Unfortunately, the Sentinel-1 acquisition strategy is varying across the Arctic. The majority is covered in VV+VH only. DL is of benefit for road and building detection but misses large proportions of other human-impacted areas, such as gravel pads which are typical for gas and oil fields. A combination of results from both GBM (Sentinel-1 and -2 combined) and DL (Sentinel-2; Sentinel-1 optional) is therefore suggested for circumpolar mapping. View Full-Text
Keywords: arctic; settlements; infrastructure; SAR; multi-spectral; machine learning arctic; settlements; infrastructure; SAR; multi-spectral; machine learning
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bartsch, A.; Pointner, G.; Ingeman-Nielsen, T.; Lu, W. Towards Circumpolar Mapping of Arctic Settlements and Infrastructure Based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12152368

AMA Style

Bartsch A, Pointner G, Ingeman-Nielsen T, Lu W. Towards Circumpolar Mapping of Arctic Settlements and Infrastructure Based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(15):2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12152368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bartsch, Annett, Georg Pointner, Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen, and Wenjun Lu. 2020. "Towards Circumpolar Mapping of Arctic Settlements and Infrastructure Based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2" Remote Sensing 12, no. 15: 2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12152368

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop