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Open AccessArticle

Cross-Matching VIIRS Boat Detections with Vessel Monitoring System Tracks in Indonesia

1
Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA
2
Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401, USA
3
Global Fishing Watch, Washington, DC 20036, USA
4
Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten 42124, Indonesia
5
Indonesia-Center of Excellence for Food Security, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Jalan Raya Jakarta Km 4, Panancangan, Cipocok Jaya, Kota Serang, Banten 42124, Indonesia
6
Department of Fisheries Resources Utilization, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Raya Dramaga Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor, West Java 16680, Indonesia
7
Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, KKP Gedung Mina Bahari I Lt 5 Jl. Medan Merdeka Timur No. 16, Jakarta 10110, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(9), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11090995
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing with Nighttime Lights)
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Abstract

A methodology had been proposed for cross-matching visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) boat detections (VBD) with vessel monitoring system (VMS) tracks. The process involves predicting the probable location of VMS vessels at the time of each VIIRS data collection with an orbital model. Thirty-two months of Indonesian VMS data was segmented into fishing and transit activity types and then cross-matched with the VBD record. If a VBD record is found within 700 m and 5 s of the predicted location, it is marked as a match. The cross-matching indicates that 96% of the matches occur while the vessel is fishing. Small pelagic purse seiners account for 27% of the matches. Other gear types with high match rates include hand line tuna, squid dip net, squid jigging, and large pelagic purse seiners. Low match rates were found for gillnet, trawlers, and long line tuna. There is an indication that VMS vessels using submersible lights can be identified based on consistently low average radiances and match rates under 45%. Overall, VBD numbers exceed VMS vessel numbers in Indonesia by a nine to one ratio, indicating that VIIRS detects large numbers of fishing boats under the 30 Gross Tonnage (GT) level set for the VMS requirement. The cross-matching could be used to identify “dark” vessels that lack automatic identification system (AIS) or VMS. View Full-Text
Keywords: VIIRS; DNB; nighttime lights; VMS; IUU; boat detection; low light imaging; Indonesia VIIRS; DNB; nighttime lights; VMS; IUU; boat detection; low light imaging; Indonesia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, F.-C.; Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.; Zhizhin, M.; Ghosh, T.; Kroodsma, D.; Susanto, A.; Budy, W.; Riyanto, M.; Nurzeha, R.; Sudarja, Y. Cross-Matching VIIRS Boat Detections with Vessel Monitoring System Tracks in Indonesia. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 995.

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