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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030357

Assessment of Coastal Aquaculture for India from Sentinel-1 SAR Time Series

1
Department of Geography, School of Earth Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610005, Tamil Nadu, India
2
German Remote Sensing Data Center, Earth Observation Center, German Aerospace Center, 82234 Wessling, Germany
3
Department of Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Fisheries and Aquaculture)
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Abstract

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing primary food production sectors in India and ranks second behind China. Due to its growing economic value and global demand, India’s aquaculture industry experienced exponential growth for more than one decade. In this study, we extract land-based aquaculture at the pond level for the entire coastal zone of India using large-volume time series Sentinel-1 synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data at 10-m spatial resolution. Elevation and slope from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) data were used for masking inappropriate areas, whereas a coastline dataset was used to create a land/ocean mask. The pixel-wise temporal median was calculated from all available Sentinel-1 data to significantly reduce the amount of noise in the SAR data and to reduce confusions with temporary inundated rice fields. More than 3000 aquaculture pond vector samples were collected from high-resolution Google Earth imagery and used in an object-based image classification approach to exploit the characteristic shape information of aquaculture ponds. An open-source connected component segmentation algorithm was used for the extraction of the ponds based on the difference in backscatter intensity of inundated surfaces and shape metrics calculated from aquaculture samples as input parameters. This study, for the first time, provides spatial explicit information on aquaculture distribution at the pond level for the entire coastal zone of India. Quantitative spatial analyses were performed to identify the provincial dominance in aquaculture production, such as that revealed in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat provinces. For accuracy assessment, 2000 random samples were generated based on a stratified random sampling method. The study demonstrates, with an overall accuracy of 0.89, the spatio-temporal transferability of the methodological framework and the high potential for a global-scale application. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; food security; India; Asia; coast; Sentinel-1; Copernicus; SAR; time series; object-based image analysis (OBIA) aquaculture; food security; India; Asia; coast; Sentinel-1; Copernicus; SAR; time series; object-based image analysis (OBIA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Prasad, K.A.; Ottinger, M.; Wei, C.; Leinenkugel, P. Assessment of Coastal Aquaculture for India from Sentinel-1 SAR Time Series. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 357.

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