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Environmental Reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae: Challenges and Opportunities for Ocean-Color Remote Sensing

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Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK
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National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK
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Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Abraham Madamakkal Road, Cochin, Kerala 682 018, India
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Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Abraham Madamakkal Road, Kochi 682 018, India
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Nansen Environmental Research Centre India (NERCI), First floor, Amenity Centre, KUFOS, Kochi, Kerala 682506, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(23), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11232763
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 24 November 2019
The World Health Organization has estimated the burden of the on-going pandemic of cholera at 1.3 to 4 million cases per year worldwide in 2016, and a doubling of case-fatality-rate to 1.8% in 2016 from 0.8% in 2015. The disease cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that can be found in environmental reservoirs, living either in free planktonic form or in association with host organisms, non-living particulate matter or in the sediment, and participating in various biogeochemical cycles. An increasing number of epidemiological studies are using land- and water-based remote-sensing observations for monitoring, surveillance, or risk mapping of Vibrio pathogens and cholera outbreaks. Although the Vibrio pathogens cannot be sensed directly by satellite sensors, remotely-sensed data can be used to infer their presence. Here, we review the use of ocean-color remote-sensing data, in conjunction with information on the ecology of the pathogen, to map its distribution and forecast risk of disease occurrence. Finally, we assess how satellite-based information on cholera may help support the Sustainable Development Goals and targets on Health (Goal 3), Water Quality (Goal 6), Climate (Goal 13), and Life Below Water (Goal 14). View Full-Text
Keywords: Vibrio cholerae; waterborne diseases; cholera outbreaks; ocean-color remote sensing; Earth observation; epidemiology; ecology; microbial ecosystems; modeling; surveillance; forecast; SDGs for health; climate; water quality; oceans Vibrio cholerae; waterborne diseases; cholera outbreaks; ocean-color remote sensing; Earth observation; epidemiology; ecology; microbial ecosystems; modeling; surveillance; forecast; SDGs for health; climate; water quality; oceans
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Racault, M.-F.; Abdulaziz, A.; George, G.; Menon, N.; C, J.; Punathil, M.; McConville, K.; Loveday, B.; Platt, T.; Sathyendranath, S.; Vijayan, V. Environmental Reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae: Challenges and Opportunities for Ocean-Color Remote Sensing. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2763.

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