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Open AccessArticle

Application of DInSAR-PSI Technology for Deformation Monitoring of the Mosul Dam, Iraq

Iraq Geological Survey, Sulaymaniyah Office, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
Iraq Geological Survey, Al-Andalus Square, Baghdad 10068, Iraq
College of Science, Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
Department of Forest Engineering, Santa Catarina State University (UDESC), Lages SC 88520-000, Brazil
Department of Geosciences, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499, USA
Department of Petroleum Geology and Minerals, College of Science, Diyala University, Baqubah 32001, Iraq
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(22), 2632;
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue InSAR for Earth Observation)
On-going monitoring of deformation of dams is critical to assure their safe and efficient operation. Traditional monitoring methods, based on in-situ sensors measurements on the dam, have some limitations in spatial coverage, observation frequency, and cost. This paper describes the potential use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes from Sentinel-1A for characterizing deformations at the Mosul Dam (MD) in NW Iraq. Seventy-eight Single Look Complex (SLC) scenes in ascending geometry from the Sentinel-1A scenes, acquired from 03 October 2014 to 27 June 2019, and 96 points within the MD structure, were selected to determine the deformation rate using persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI). Maximum deformation velocity was found to be about 7.4 mm·yr−1 at a longitudinal subsidence area extending over a length of 222 m along the dam axis. The mean subsidence velocity in this area is about 6.27 mm·yr−1 and lies in the center of MD. Subsidence rate shows an inverse relationship with the reservoir water level. It also shows a strong correlation with grouting episodes. Variations in the deformation rate within the same year are most probably due to increased hydrostatic stress which was caused by water storage in the dam that resulted in an increase in solubility of gypsum beds, creating voids and localized collapses underneath the dam. PSI information derived from Sentinel-1A proved to be a good tool for monitoring dam deformation with good accuracy, yielding results that can be used in engineering applications and also risk management. View Full-Text
Keywords: DInSAR; PSI; gypsum; Mosul dam; Iraq DInSAR; PSI; gypsum; Mosul dam; Iraq
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Othman, A.A.; Al- Maamar, A.F.; Al-Manmi, D.A.M.; Liesenberg, V.; Hasan, S.E.; Al-Saady, Y.I.; Shihab, A.T.; Khwedim, K. Application of DInSAR-PSI Technology for Deformation Monitoring of the Mosul Dam, Iraq. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2632.

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